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Quote of the Day: 17 March ’11~Anatole France

“Only men who are not interested in women are interested in women’s clothes. Men who like women never notice what they wear.”~Anatole France

Anatole France (16 April 1844 – 12 October 1924), born François-Anatole Thibault, was a French poet, journalist, and novelist. He was born in Paris, and died in Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire. He was a successful novelist, with several best-sellers. Ironic and skeptical, he was considered in his day the ideal French man of letters. He was a member of the Académie française, and won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

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L’Histoire de Mode~Corset

 

Click picture for 18th Century Corset Pattern

A corset is a garment worn to hold and shape the torso into a

desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration

of wearing it, or with a more lasting effect). Both men and women are

known to wear corsets, though women are more common wearers.

In recent years, the term “corset” has also been borrowed by the fashion

industry to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of

traditional corsets without actually acting as one. While these modern

corsets and corset tops often feature lacing and/or boning and generally

mimic a historical style of corsets, they have very little if any effect

on the shape of the wearer’s body. Genuine corsets are usually made by

a corsetmaker and should be fitted to the individual wearer.

The word corset is derived from the Old French word corps, the diminutive of

body, which itself derives from corpus – Latin for body. The craft of corset construction

is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them. (The word corsetry is

sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset.) Someone who makes

corsets is a corsetier or corsetière (French terms for a man and for a woman,

respectively), or sometimes simply a corsetmaker. The word corset came into general

use in the English language in 1785. The word was used in The Ladies Magazine

to describe a “quilted waistcoat” called un corset by the French. The word was used

to differentiate the lighter corset from the heavier stays of the period.

Fashion

The most common and well-known use of corsets is to slim the

body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women

this most frequently emphasizes a curvy figure, by reducing

the waist, and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. However,

in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular

straight-up-and-down shape, which involves minimizing the bust and hips.

For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However,

there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 when a wasp-waisted figure

(a small, nipped-in look to the waist) was also desirable for men; this

was sometimes achieved by wearing a corset.

An overbust corset encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms

to the hips. An underbust corset begins just under the breasts and extends down

to the hips. Some corsets extend over the hips and, in very rare instances, reach the knees.

A shorter kind of corset, which covers the waist area (from low on the ribs to just

above the hips), is called a waist cincher. A corset may also include garters to hold up

stockings (alternatively a separate garter belt may be worn for that).

Normally a corset supports the visible dress, and

spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the

crinoline and bustle. Sometimes a corset cover is used to

protect outer clothes from the corset and to smooth the lines

of the corset. The original corset cover was worn under the

corset to provide a layer between it and the body. Corsets

were not worn next to the skin, possibly due to difficulties

with laundering these items during the 19th century, as they

had steel boning and metal eyelets which would rust. The

corset cover would be in the form of a light chemise,

made from cotton lawn or silk.

Medical

People with spinal problems such as scoliosis or with internal injuries may be fitted

with a form of corset in order to immobilize and protect the torso. Andy Warhol was shot

in 1968 and never fully recovered, and wore a corset for the rest of his life.

Fetish

Aside from fashion and medical uses, corsets are also used

in sexual fetishism, most notably in BDSM activities. In BDSM, a

submissive can be forced to wear a corset which would be laced

very tight and give some degree of restriction to the wearer. A dominant

can also wear a corset, often black, but for entirely different reasons,

such as aesthetics, and to achieve a severe, armored, “unbending”,

commanding appearance. A very common fetish costume for

women is the dominatrix costume. Usually it consists of mostly

dark or even black clothing. The woman usually wears a corset or

bustier and stockings with high-heeled footwear. High boots

are quite common as they enhance the woman’s domination.

Women in dominatrix costumes usually carry an accessory such

as a whip or a riding crop. A specially designed corset, in which

the breasts and vulva are left exposed can be worn during.

vanilla sex or BDSM activities.

Corsets are typically constructed of a flexible material (like cloth,

particularly coutil, or leather) stiffened with boning (also called ribs or stays) inserted

into channels in the cloth or leather. In the 19th century, bones of elephant, moose,

and whale were favored for the boning. Plastic is now the most commonly

used material for lightweight corsets and the majority of poor quality corsets,

whereas spring or spiral steel is preferred for stronger corsets and generally the

better quality corset too. Other materials used for boning include ivory, wood,

and cane. (By contrast, a girdle is usually made of elasticized fabric,

without boning.)

Corsets are held together by lacing, usually (though

not always) at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing

produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset.

Depending on the desired effect and time period, corsets can be

laced from the top down, from the bottom up, or both up from the

bottom and down from the top, using two laces that meet in the

middle. It is difficult—although not impossible—for a back-laced

corset-wearer to do his or her own lacing. In the Victorian

heyday of corsets, a well-to-do woman’s corset laces would

be tightened by her maid, and a gentleman’s by his valet.

However, Victorian corsets also had a buttoned or

hooked front opening called a busk. If the corset was

worn loosely, it was possible to leave the lacing as

adjusted and take the corset on and off using the front

opening (if the corset is worn snugly, this method will

damage the busk if the lacing is not significantly

loosened beforehand). Self-lacing is also almost impossible

with tightlacing, which strives for the utmost possible reduction

of the waist. Modern tightlacers, lacking servants,

are usually laced by spouses and partners.

By wearing a tightly-laced corset for extended periods, known

as tightlacing, men and women can learn to tolerate extreme waist constriction

and eventually reduce their natural waist size. Tightlacers dream of 16 inches (41 cm)

and 17 inches (43 cm) waists[citation needed], but most are satisfied with anything under

20 inches (51 cm). Some went so far that they could only breathe with the top part of their

lungs. This caused the bottom part of their lungs to fill with mucus, symtoms of this

include a slight but persistant cough and heavy breathing causing a heaving

appearance of the bosom. Until 1998, the Guinness Book of World Records

listed Ethel Granger as having the smallest waist on record at 13 inches (33 cm).

After 1998, the category changed to “smallest waist on a living person”

and Cathie Jung took the title with a 15 inches (38 cm) waist. Other women,

such as Polaire, also have achieved such reductions

(14 inches (36 cm) in her case).

However, these are extreme cases. Corsets were and are still usually

designed for support, with freedom of body movement, an important

consideration in their design. Present day corset-wearers usually tighten

the corset just enough to reduce their waists by 2 inches (5.1 cm) to

4 inches (10 cm); it is very difficult for a slender woman to achieve

as much as 6 inches (15 cm), although larger women can do so more easily.

In the past, a woman’s corset was usually worn over a chemise, a sleeveless

low-necked gown made of washable material (usually cotton or linen). It absorbed

perspiration and kept the corset and the gown clean. In modern times, an

undershirt or corset liner may be worn.

Moderate lacing is not incompatible with vigorous activity.

Indeed, during the second half of the 19th century, when corset

wearing was common, there were sport corsets specifically designed

to wear while bicycling, playing tennis, or horseback riding,

as well as for maternity wear.

The corset has been erroneously attributed to Catherine de’ Medici, wife

of King Henry II of France. She enforced a ban on thick waists at court attendance

during the 1550s. For nearly 350 years, women’s primary means of support was

the corset, with laces and stays made of whalebone or metal. Other

researchers have found evidence of the

use of corsets in early Crete.

The corset has undergone many changes. The corset was

originally known as stays in the early 16th century. It was a

simple bodice with tabs at the waist, stiffened by horn, buckram,

and whalebone. The center front was further reinforced by a busk

made of ivory, wood, or metal. It was most often laced from

the back, and was, at first, a garment reserved for the aristocracy.

Stays took a different form in the 18th century, whalebone began to be

used more, and there was more boning used in the garment. The shape of the

stays changed as well. The stays were low and wide in the front, while in the

back they could reach as high as the upper shoulder. Stays could be strapless
or use shoulder straps. The straps of the stays were attached in

the back and tied at the front sides.

The purpose of 18th century stays was to support the bust, confer

the fashionable conical shape while drawing the shoulders back. At this

time, the eyelets were reinforced with stitches, and were not placed

across from one another, but staggered. This allowed the stays to be

spiral laced. One end of the stay lace is inserted and knotted in the

bottom eyelet, the other end is wound through the stays’ eyelets

and tightened on the top. Tight-lacing was not common in this

time period, and indulged in only by the very fashionable.

Stays were worn by women in all societal levels, from

ladies of the court to street vendors. At this time, there

were two other variants of stays, jumps, which were

looser stays with attached sleeves, like

a jacket, and corsets.

Corsets were originally quilted waistcoats, worn by French women

as an alternative to stiff corsets. They were only quilted linen, laced in the

front, and un-boned. This garment was meant to be worn on informal occasions,

while stays were worn for court dress. In the 1790s, stays fell out of fashion. This

development coincided with the French Revolution, and the adoption of neoclassical

styles of dress. Interestingly, it was the men, Dandies, who began to wear corsets.

The fashion persisted thorough the 1840s, though after 1850 men who wore corsets

claimed they needed them for “back pain”.

Stays went away in the late 18th century, but the corset remained.

Corsets in the early 19th century lengthened to the hip, the lower

tabs replaced by gussets at the hip. Room was made for the bust in

front with more gussets, and the back lowered. The shoulder straps

disappeared in the 1840s for normal wear.

In the 1820s, fashion changed again, with the waistline lowered back to

almost the natural position. Corsets began to be made with some

padding and boning. Corsets began to be worn by all classes of society.

Some women made their own, while others bought their corsets. Corsets

were one of the first mass produced garments for women. Corsets began to

be more heavily boned in the 1840s. By 1850, steel

boning became popular.

With the advent of metal eyelets, tight lacing became possible.

The position of the eyelets changed, they were now situated across

from one another at the back. The front was now fastened with a metal

busk in front. Corsets were mostly white. The corsets of the 1850s-1860s

were shorter than the corsets of the 19th century through 1840s. This

was because of a change in the silhouette of women’s fashion.

The 1850s and 60s emphasized the hoopskirt. After the 1860s,

when the hoop fell out of style, the corset became longer to

mold the abdomen, exposed by the new lines of the

princess or cuirass style.

During the Edwardian period, the straight front corset (also known as

the S-Curve corset) was introduced. This corset was straight in front, with a

pronounced curve at the back that forced the upper body forward, and

the derrière out. This style was worn from 1900-1908.

The corset reached its longest length in the early 20th century.

The longline corset at first reached from the bust down to the

upper thigh. There was also a style of longline corset that started

under the bust, and necessitated the wearing of a brassiere.

This style was meant to complement the new silhouette.

It was a boneless style, much closer to a modern

girdle than the traditional corset. The longline

style was abandoned during World War I.

The corset fell from fashion in the 1920s in Europe and North America,

replaced by girdles and elastic brassieres, but survived as an article of costume.

Originally an item of lingerie, the corset has become a popular item of outerwear in

the fetish, BDSM and goth subcultures. In the fetish and BDSM literature, there is often

much emphasis on tightlacing, and many corset

makers cater to the fetish market.

Outside the fetish community, living history re-enactors

and historic costume enthusiasts still wear corsets

according to their original purpose, to give the proper

shape to the figure when wearing historic fashions.

In this case, the corset is underwear rather than

outerwear. Skilled corset makers are available to

make reproductions of historic corset shapes,

or to design new styles.

There was a brief revival of the corset in the late 1940s and early

1950s, in the form of the waist cincher sometimes called a “waspie”. This

was used to give the hourglass figure dictated by Christian Dior’s ‘New Look’.

However, use of the waist cincher was restricted to haute couture, and mos

t women continued to use girdles. This revival was brief, as the New Look

gave way to a less dramatically-shaped silhouette.

Since the late 1980s, the corset has experienced periodic

revivals, which have usually originated in haute couture and

which have occasionally trickled through to mainstream fashion.

These revivals focus on the corset as an item of outerwear

rather than underwear. The strongest of these revivals

was seen in the Autumn 2001 fashion collections and

coincided with the release of the film Moulin Rouge!, the costumes

for which featured many corsets as characteristic of the era. Another

fashion movement which has renewed interest in the corset is the

“Steampunk” culture, which utilizes late-Victorian fashion

shapes in new ways. The look was popularized by the

costumes in the film “The Golden Compass.”


L’Histiore de Mode: Nouvelle Mode~Fabrican

 

 

In 2000 Fabrican patented an instant, sprayable, non-woven fabric.

Developed through a collaboration between Imperial College London and the

Royal College of Art, Fabrican technology has captured the imagination of designers,

industry and the public around the world. The technology has been developed for use

in household, industrial, personal and healthcare, decorative and fashion applications

using aerosol cans or spray-guns, and will soon be found in

products available everywhere.

The original idea of spray-on fabric came from Manel Torres’

work in the fashion industry.  These photos capture the essence

of science and fashion in collaboration. Fabrican spray-on fabric

will liberate designers to create new and unique garments, offer a

carrier technology for delivery of fragrance or even medical active

substances, and allow the wearer to personalise their wardrobe

in infinite combinations. New textures and material characteristics are

a matter of adjusting chemistry. In addition to fashion, the technology is

opening new vistas, offering sprayable material for any application requiring a

fabric coating.  The technology opens new vistas for personalised fashion,

allowing individual touches to be added to manufactured garments, or even impromptu

alterations. Garments could incorporate fragrances, active substances,

or conductive materials to interface with information technolgy.

After a decade of research, this futuristic

vision is taking shape.

Fabrican is a rare achievement in transforming a dream to practical realisation.

Through combination of clever exploitation of people’s immediate fascination with

the spray-on fabric, and Manel’s extraordinary ability to motivate multi-disciplinary

collaboration, Fabrican has brought interest and worldwide

media coverage.

  • 1995 – 1997 Manel Torres conceives the idea for Spray-on Fabric whilst studying for his MA in Fashion Women’s Wear, Royal College of Art, London.
  • 1998 – 2001 Manel Torres obtains his PhD for Spray-on Fabric at the Royal College of Art and has a patent filed for this technology. During his PhD research, his work was supervised by Dr Susannah Handley (Royal College of Art) and Professor Paul Luckham (Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London).
  • 2003 Manel Torres establishes Fabrican Ltd. with Professor Paul Luckham.
Dr Manel Torres BA (Hons), MA (RCA), Ph.D (RCA), is the managing director of Fabrican Ltd., which was established in
February 2003. The company has its R&D facilities at Imperial College London. Its research involves crossing interrelating disciplines of science and design.

Aware of the slow process of constructing garments, Manel investigated novel ways to speed up this process. Manel’s foresight and vision led him to think of developing a material that would almost magically fit the body like a second skin and at the same time have the appearance of clothing.

The original concept was to utilise Spray-on Fabric in the fashion industry. However, the technology has the potential to revolutionise and enhance numerous market areas.

Fabrican is focused on the research and development of Spray-on Fabric which can then be used across a number of market sectors. Fabrican’s mission is to develop prototype products, in collaboration with leading industrial partners, leading to commercial exploitation by the partner.

Our technology can be used across many industries, positively impacting the lives of millions of people as well as the environment.

From Spray-on clothes, to Spray-on medicine patches, to Spray-on hygiene wipes, to Spray-on air fresheners (plus many more uses!), Fabrican is developing products with real benefits.

Fabrican Ltd. is a company exploiting inter-disciplinary research which links the subjects of science and design.

Our team is dedicated to meeting the needs of consumers with creative ideas and innovative products, through the development of new applications for Spray-on Fabric technology.

Our novel concepts are enlightening major worldwide manufacturers as to the huge potential which exists, through the successful branding of a product range.

Our underlying ethos is to produce concept products which are market leaders, through scientific research and development for future markets.

Fabrican in Action

In the science lab

On the Runway

Couture in a Can

 

I still can’t tell yet if it would be a good investment as a designer or a huge waste of money, time, & effort. LoL Who wears that out? Gaga? That’s it?!?


ALMOST THERE!! 1930 VIEWS CONTEST CLOSING SOON!!

CLICK PHOTO FOR DETAILS.

ONCE THE SITE VIEW IS AT 1930 CONTEST IS OVER!

ENTER FOR YOUR CHANCE TO WIN FREE JEWELRY DESIGNED BY US UNDER OUR SHOP PAGE.

**More contests coming soon!**


L’Histoire de Mode~Fashion Photography

 

 

Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione in a photo by Pierre-Louise Pierson (c. 1863/66)

 

Fashion Photography

 

Fashion photography is a genre of photography devoted

to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography

is most often conducted for advertisements or fashionmagazines such

as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Allure. Over time, fashion photography has

developed its own aesthetic in which the clothes and fashions are

enhanced by the presence of exotic locations or accessories.

Photography was developed in the 1830s, but the earliest popular technique, the

daguerreotype, was unsuitable for mass printing. In 1856, Adolphe Braun

published a book containing 288 photographs of Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione,

a Tuscan noblewoman at the court of Napoleon III. The photos depict her in her

official court garb, making her the first fashion model.

In the first decade of the 20th century, advances in

halftone printing allowed fashion photographs to be featured

in magazines. Fashion photography made its first appearance in

French magazines such as La mode practique. In 1909, Condé Nast took

over Vogue magazine and also contributed to the beginnings of fashion

photography. In 1911, photographer Edward Steichen was “dared” by

Lucien Vogel, the publisher of Jardin des Modes and La Gazette du Bon Ton,

to promote fashion as a fine art by the use of photography. Steichen

then took photos of gowns designed by couturier Paul Poiret.

These photographs were published in the April 1911 issue of

the magazine Art et Décoration. According to Jesse Alexander,

This is “…now considered to be the first ever modern fashion

photography shoot. That is, photographing the garments in such

a way as to convey a sense of their physical quality as well as

their formal appearance, as opposed to simply illustrating the object.”

At this time, special emphasis was placed on staging the shots, a process

first developed by Baron Adolf de Meyer, who shot his models in natural

environments and poses. Vogue was followed by its rival, Harper’s Bazaar, and

the two companies were leaders in the field of fashion photography throughout

the 1920s and 1930s. House photographers such as Edward Steichen,

George Hoyningen-Huene, Horst P. Horst and Cecil Beaton transformed

the genre into an outstanding art form. Europe, and especially

Germany, was for a short time the leader

in fashion photography.

But now with that change in time every country has taken

considerable measures to promote the field of photography.

In the mid 1940s as World War II approached, the focus

shifted to the United States, where Vogue and Harper’s continued

their old rivalry. House photographers such as Irving Penn,

Martin Munkacsi, Richard Avedon, and Louise Dahl-Wolfe would

shape the look of fashion photography for the following decades.

Richard Avedon revolutionized fashion photography — and redefined

the role of the fashion photographer — in the post-World War II era

with his imaginative images of the modern woman. Today, his work is being

exhibited in the Norton Museum in West Palm Beach, FL. This exhibition features

more than 200 works and spans Avedon’s entire career, including vintage

prints, contact sheets, and original magazines from Harper’s Bazaar,

Vogue and The New Yorker.

The artists abandoned their rigid forms for a much freer style. In 1936,

Martin Munkacsi made the first photographs of models in sporty poses at the beach.

Under the artistic direction of Alexey Brodovitch, the Harper’s

Bazaar quickly introduced this new style into its magazine.

In postwar London, John French pioneered a new form

of fashion photography suited to reproduction in

newsprint, involving where possible reflected

natural light and low contrast.

After the deaths of Richard Avedon, Helmut Newton and Herb Ritts,

some of today’s most famous fashion photographers are Patrick Demarchelier, Steven Meisel,

Mario Testino, Peter Lindbergh and Annie Leibovitz.


L’Histoire de Mode #2~Fashion Week

 

 

Fashion Week History

In 1943, the first New York Fashion Week was held,

with one main purpose: to distract attention from French

fashion during WWII, when workers in the fashion industry

were unable to travel to Paris. This was an opportune

moment – as for centuries designers in America were thought

to be reliant on the French for inspiration. The fashion

publicist Eleanor Lambert organized an event she called

‘Press Week’ to showcase American designers for fashion journalists,

who had previously ignored their works. The Press Week was a success,

and, as a result, magazines like Vogue (which were normally filled with

French designs) began to feature more and more American innovations.

Until 1994, shows were held in different locations, such as hotels, or lofts.

Eventually, after a structural accident at a Michael Kors show, the event

moved to Bryant Park, behind the New York Public Library, where it remained

until 2010, when the shows relocated to Lincoln Center. However, long before

Lambert, there were fashion shows throughout America. In 1903, an NYC shop, called

Ehrich Brothers, put on what is thought to have been the country’s first fashion show,

to lure middle-class females into the store. By 1910, many big department stores

were holding shows of their own.

It is likely that American retailers saw that they were called

‘fashion parades’ in Paris couture salons and decided to use the idea.

These parades were an effective way to promote stores, and improved

their status. By the 1920s, the fashion show had been used by retailers

up and down the country. They were staged, and often held in the shop’s

restaurant during lunch or teatime. These shows were usually more theatrical

than those of today, heavily based upon a single theme, and accompanied

with a narrative commentary. The shows were hugely popular, enticing

crowds in their thousands – crowds so large, that stores in New York in the

fifties had to obtain a license to have live models. Nowadays, access to

New York Fashion Week is by invitation only, and only fashion magazine

editors, fashion magazine journalists, models (and ex-models)

and celebrities are invited.

Other buyers are restricted to the showrooms and stores, and the

articles in the magazines. The dominance of the big four has been

criticised for benefiting industry participants. For example, buyers,

journalists, models and celebrities can limit their travel and simply move

from one city to the other over the four week period. This arrangement

has been criticized for stifling manufacturing employment in the UK

and design talent in emerging fashion hubs such as Los Angeles.

 

Fashion Week Schedule

New York, London, Milan and Paris each host a fashion week twice a year with

New York kicking off each season and the other cities following in the

aforementioned order.

There are two major seasons per year – Autumn/Winter and Spring/Summer.

For Womenswear, the Autumn/Winter shows always start in

New York in February. Spring/Summer shows start in September

in London. Menswear Autumn/Winter shows start in January in Milan

for typically less than a week followed by another short week in Paris.

Menswear Spring/Summer shows are done in June. Womenswear Haute

Couture shows typically happen in Paris a week after

the Menswear Paris shows.

Over the past few years, more and more designers have shown

inter-seasonal collections between the traditional Autumn/Winter and Spring/Summer seasons.

These collections are usually more commercial than the main season collections and

help shorten the customer’s wait for new season clothes. The inter-seasonal

collections are Resort/Cruise (before Spring/Summer) and Pre-Fall (before Autumn/Winter).

There is no fixed schedule for these shows in any of the major fashion capitals but

they typically happen three months after the main season shows. Some designers show

their inter-seasonal collections outside their home city. For example, Karl Lagerfeld

has shown his Resort and Pre-Fall collections for Chanel in cities such

as Moscow, Los Angeles and Monte Carlo instead of Paris. Many designers

also put on presentations as opposed to traditional shows during Resort and

Pre-Fall either to cut down costs or because they feel the clothes

can be better understood in this medium.

Some fashion weeks can be genre-specific, such as a

Miami Fashion Week (swimwear), Rio Summer (swimwear),

Prêt-a-Porter (ready-to-wear) Fashion Week, Couture

(one-of-a-kind designer original) Fashion Week and Bridal

Fashion Week, while Portland (Oregon, USA) Fashion Week

shows some eco-friendly designers.


L’Histoire de Mode~ Pannier

c. 1720

Pannier Hand Drawn Instructions (click photo to learn to make your own)

Pannier (clothing):


Are also known as side hoops are women’s undergarments

worn in the 18th century to extend the width of the skirts at

the side while leaving the front and back flat. This provided a

flat panel where boldly scaled woven patterns or rich embroidery

could be fully appreciated.The style originated in Spanish

court dress of the 17th century,familiar in portraits by Velázquez.

The fashion spread to France and from there to the rest of

Europe after c. 1718-1719, after some Spanish dresses had been

displayed in Paris. By mid-18th century it had been developed into the

robe à la française, which ensured that a woman took up three times

as much space as a man and always presented an imposing spectacle.

At their most extreme, in the French court of Marie Antoinette,

could extend the skirt several feet at each side. By the 1780s, panniers

were normally worn only to very formal gowns and within court fashion. The name

comes from panniers, a French term for wicker baskets (paniers in current

French) slung on either side of a pack animal. It is also

the name of a GWR 0-6-0 Tank engine with an iconic

rectangular boiler.

Samples:

Court dress 1779 worn over extremely wide panniers.

Court ladies in a view of Vienna by Canaletto's nephew Bernardo Bellotto, c. 1760


Quote of the Day: 26 Jan. 11 ~Napoleon Bonaparte

“Fashion condemns us to many follies; the greatest is to make ourselves its slave.”~Napoleon Bonaparte

(15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a military and political leader of France and Emperor of the French as Napoleon I, whose actions shaped European politics in the early 19th century.