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A corset is a garment worn to hold and shape the torso into a
desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration
of wearing it, or with a more lasting effect). Both men and women are
known to wear corsets, though women are more common wearers.
In recent years, the term “corset” has also been borrowed by the fashion
industry to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of
traditional corsets without actually acting as one. While these modern
corsets and corset tops often feature lacing and/or boning and generally
mimic a historical style of corsets, they have very little if any effect
on the shape of the wearer’s body. Genuine corsets are usually made by
a corsetmaker and should be fitted to the individual wearer.
The word corset is derived from the Old French word corps, the diminutive of
body, which itself derives from corpus – Latin for body. The craft of corset construction
is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them. (The word corsetry is
sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset.) Someone who makes
corsets is a corsetier or corsetière (French terms for a man and for a woman,
respectively), or sometimes simply a corsetmaker. The word corset came into general
use in the English language in 1785. The word was used in The Ladies Magazine
to describe a “quilted waistcoat” called un corset by the French. The word was used
to differentiate the lighter corset from the heavier stays of the period.
The most common and well-known use of corsets is to slim the
body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women
this most frequently emphasizes a curvy figure, by reducing
the waist, and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. However,
in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular
straight-up-and-down shape, which involves minimizing the bust and hips.
For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However,
there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 when a wasp-waisted figure
(a small, nipped-in look to the waist) was also desirable for men; this
was sometimes achieved by wearing a corset.
An overbust corset encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms
to the hips. An underbust corset begins just under the breasts and extends down
to the hips. Some corsets extend over the hips and, in very rare instances, reach the knees.
A shorter kind of corset, which covers the waist area (from low on the ribs to just
above the hips), is called a waist cincher. A corset may also include garters to hold up
stockings (alternatively a separate garter belt may be worn for that).
Normally a corset supports the visible dress, and
spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the
crinoline and bustle. Sometimes a corset cover is used to
protect outer clothes from the corset and to smooth the lines
of the corset. The original corset cover was worn under the
corset to provide a layer between it and the body. Corsets
were not worn next to the skin, possibly due to difficulties
with laundering these items during the 19th century, as they
had steel boning and metal eyelets which would rust. The
corset cover would be in the form of a light chemise,
made from cotton lawn or silk.
People with spinal problems such as scoliosis or with internal injuries may be fitted
with a form of corset in order to immobilize and protect the torso. Andy Warhol was shot
in 1968 and never fully recovered, and wore a corset for the rest of his life.
Aside from fashion and medical uses, corsets are also used
in sexual fetishism, most notably in BDSM activities. In BDSM, a
submissive can be forced to wear a corset which would be laced
very tight and give some degree of restriction to the wearer. A dominant
can also wear a corset, often black, but for entirely different reasons,
such as aesthetics, and to achieve a severe, armored, “unbending”,
commanding appearance. A very common fetish costume for
women is the dominatrix costume. Usually it consists of mostly
dark or even black clothing. The woman usually wears a corset or
bustier and stockings with high-heeled footwear. High boots
are quite common as they enhance the woman’s domination.
Women in dominatrix costumes usually carry an accessory such
as a whip or a riding crop. A specially designed corset, in which
the breasts and vulva are left exposed can be worn during.
vanilla sex or BDSM activities.
Corsets are typically constructed of a flexible material (like cloth,
particularly coutil, or leather) stiffened with boning (also called ribs or stays) inserted
into channels in the cloth or leather. In the 19th century, bones of elephant, moose,
and whale were favored for the boning. Plastic is now the most commonly
used material for lightweight corsets and the majority of poor quality corsets,
whereas spring or spiral steel is preferred for stronger corsets and generally the
better quality corset too. Other materials used for boning include ivory, wood,
and cane. (By contrast, a girdle is usually made of elasticized fabric,
Corsets are held together by lacing, usually (though
not always) at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing
produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset.
Depending on the desired effect and time period, corsets can be
laced from the top down, from the bottom up, or both up from the
bottom and down from the top, using two laces that meet in the
middle. It is difficult—although not impossible—for a back-laced
corset-wearer to do his or her own lacing. In the Victorian
heyday of corsets, a well-to-do woman’s corset laces would
be tightened by her maid, and a gentleman’s by his valet.
However, Victorian corsets also had a buttoned or
hooked front opening called a busk. If the corset was
worn loosely, it was possible to leave the lacing as
adjusted and take the corset on and off using the front
opening (if the corset is worn snugly, this method will
damage the busk if the lacing is not significantly
loosened beforehand). Self-lacing is also almost impossible
with tightlacing, which strives for the utmost possible reduction
of the waist. Modern tightlacers, lacking servants,
are usually laced by spouses and partners.
By wearing a tightly-laced corset for extended periods, known
as tightlacing, men and women can learn to tolerate extreme waist constriction
and eventually reduce their natural waist size. Tightlacers dream of 16 inches (41 cm)
and 17 inches (43 cm) waists, but most are satisfied with anything under
20 inches (51 cm). Some went so far that they could only breathe with the top part of their
lungs. This caused the bottom part of their lungs to fill with mucus, symtoms of this
include a slight but persistant cough and heavy breathing causing a heaving
appearance of the bosom. Until 1998, the Guinness Book of World Records
listed Ethel Granger as having the smallest waist on record at 13 inches (33 cm).
After 1998, the category changed to “smallest waist on a living person”
and Cathie Jung took the title with a 15 inches (38 cm) waist. Other women,
such as Polaire, also have achieved such reductions
(14 inches (36 cm) in her case).
However, these are extreme cases. Corsets were and are still usually
designed for support, with freedom of body movement, an important
consideration in their design. Present day corset-wearers usually tighten
the corset just enough to reduce their waists by 2 inches (5.1 cm) to
4 inches (10 cm); it is very difficult for a slender woman to achieve
as much as 6 inches (15 cm), although larger women can do so more easily.
In the past, a woman’s corset was usually worn over a chemise, a sleeveless
low-necked gown made of washable material (usually cotton or linen). It absorbed
perspiration and kept the corset and the gown clean. In modern times, an
undershirt or corset liner may be worn.
Moderate lacing is not incompatible with vigorous activity.
Indeed, during the second half of the 19th century, when corset
wearing was common, there were sport corsets specifically designed
to wear while bicycling, playing tennis, or horseback riding,
as well as for maternity wear.
The corset has been erroneously attributed to Catherine de’ Medici, wife
of King Henry II of France. She enforced a ban on thick waists at court attendance
during the 1550s. For nearly 350 years, women’s primary means of support was
the corset, with laces and stays made of whalebone or metal. Other
researchers have found evidence of the
use of corsets in early Crete.
The corset has undergone many changes. The corset was
originally known as stays in the early 16th century. It was a
simple bodice with tabs at the waist, stiffened by horn, buckram,
and whalebone. The center front was further reinforced by a busk
made of ivory, wood, or metal. It was most often laced from
the back, and was, at first, a garment reserved for the aristocracy.
Stays took a different form in the 18th century, whalebone began to be
used more, and there was more boning used in the garment. The shape of the
stays changed as well. The stays were low and wide in the front, while in the
back they could reach as high as the upper shoulder. Stays could be strapless
or use shoulder straps. The straps of the stays were attached in
the back and tied at the front sides.
The purpose of 18th century stays was to support the bust, confer
the fashionable conical shape while drawing the shoulders back. At this
time, the eyelets were reinforced with stitches, and were not placed
across from one another, but staggered. This allowed the stays to be
spiral laced. One end of the stay lace is inserted and knotted in the
bottom eyelet, the other end is wound through the stays’ eyelets
and tightened on the top. Tight-lacing was not common in this
time period, and indulged in only by the very fashionable.
Stays were worn by women in all societal levels, from
ladies of the court to street vendors. At this time, there
were two other variants of stays, jumps, which were
looser stays with attached sleeves, like
a jacket, and corsets.
Corsets were originally quilted waistcoats, worn by French women
as an alternative to stiff corsets. They were only quilted linen, laced in the
front, and un-boned. This garment was meant to be worn on informal occasions,
while stays were worn for court dress. In the 1790s, stays fell out of fashion. This
development coincided with the French Revolution, and the adoption of neoclassical
styles of dress. Interestingly, it was the men, Dandies, who began to wear corsets.
The fashion persisted thorough the 1840s, though after 1850 men who wore corsets
claimed they needed them for “back pain”.
Stays went away in the late 18th century, but the corset remained.
Corsets in the early 19th century lengthened to the hip, the lower
tabs replaced by gussets at the hip. Room was made for the bust in
front with more gussets, and the back lowered. The shoulder straps
disappeared in the 1840s for normal wear.
In the 1820s, fashion changed again, with the waistline lowered back to
almost the natural position. Corsets began to be made with some
padding and boning. Corsets began to be worn by all classes of society.
Some women made their own, while others bought their corsets. Corsets
were one of the first mass produced garments for women. Corsets began to
be more heavily boned in the 1840s. By 1850, steel
boning became popular.
With the advent of metal eyelets, tight lacing became possible.
The position of the eyelets changed, they were now situated across
from one another at the back. The front was now fastened with a metal
busk in front. Corsets were mostly white. The corsets of the 1850s-1860s
were shorter than the corsets of the 19th century through 1840s. This
was because of a change in the silhouette of women’s fashion.
The 1850s and 60s emphasized the hoopskirt. After the 1860s,
when the hoop fell out of style, the corset became longer to
mold the abdomen, exposed by the new lines of the
princess or cuirass style.
During the Edwardian period, the straight front corset (also known as
the S-Curve corset) was introduced. This corset was straight in front, with a
pronounced curve at the back that forced the upper body forward, and
the derrière out. This style was worn from 1900-1908.
The corset reached its longest length in the early 20th century.
The longline corset at first reached from the bust down to the
upper thigh. There was also a style of longline corset that started
under the bust, and necessitated the wearing of a brassiere.
This style was meant to complement the new silhouette.
It was a boneless style, much closer to a modern
girdle than the traditional corset. The longline
style was abandoned during World War I.
The corset fell from fashion in the 1920s in Europe and North America,
replaced by girdles and elastic brassieres, but survived as an article of costume.
Originally an item of lingerie, the corset has become a popular item of outerwear in
the fetish, BDSM and goth subcultures. In the fetish and BDSM literature, there is often
much emphasis on tightlacing, and many corset
makers cater to the fetish market.
Outside the fetish community, living history re-enactors
and historic costume enthusiasts still wear corsets
according to their original purpose, to give the proper
shape to the figure when wearing historic fashions.
In this case, the corset is underwear rather than
outerwear. Skilled corset makers are available to
make reproductions of historic corset shapes,
or to design new styles.
There was a brief revival of the corset in the late 1940s and early
1950s, in the form of the waist cincher sometimes called a “waspie”. This
was used to give the hourglass figure dictated by Christian Dior’s ‘New Look’.
However, use of the waist cincher was restricted to haute couture, and mos
t women continued to use girdles. This revival was brief, as the New Look
gave way to a less dramatically-shaped silhouette.
Since the late 1980s, the corset has experienced periodic
revivals, which have usually originated in haute couture and
which have occasionally trickled through to mainstream fashion.
These revivals focus on the corset as an item of outerwear
rather than underwear. The strongest of these revivals
was seen in the Autumn 2001 fashion collections and
coincided with the release of the film Moulin Rouge!, the costumes
for which featured many corsets as characteristic of the era. Another
fashion movement which has renewed interest in the corset is the
“Steampunk” culture, which utilizes late-Victorian fashion
shapes in new ways. The look was popularized by the
costumes in the film “The Golden Compass.”
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“Fashion is so close in revealing a person’s inner feelings and everybody seems to hate to lay claim to vanity so people tend to push it away. It’s really too close to the quick of the soul.”~ Stella Blum
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Haute couture (French for “high sewing” or “high dressmaking”) refers to the creation
of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer,
and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention
to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often using
time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Couture is a common abbreviation
of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit.
It originally referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth’s
work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. In modern
France, haute couture is a “protected name” that can be used
only by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However,
the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted
clothing, whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as
Milan, London, New York and Tokyo.
In France, the term haute couture is protected by law and is defined by
the Chambre de commerce et d’industrie de Paris based in Paris, France.
Their rules state that only “those companies mentioned on the list drawn up each year
by a commission domiciled at the Ministry for Industry are entitled to avail themselves”
of the label haute couture. The criteria for haute couture were established in 1945 and
updated in 1992. To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term
haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the
Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules:
- Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings.
- Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time.
- Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five runs/exits with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.
However, the term haute couture may have been misused by
ready-to-wear brands since the late 1980s, so that its true meaning
may have become blurred with that of prêt-à-porter (the French term for
ready-to-wear fashion) in the public perception. Every haute couture house also
markets prêt-à-porter collections, which typically deliver a higher return on investment
than their custom clothing . Falling revenues have forced a few couture
houses to abandon their less profitable couture division and concentrate
solely on the less prestigious prêt-à-porter. These houses, such as
Italian designer Roberto Capucci, all of whom have their
workshops in Italy, are no longer
considered haute couture.
Many top designer fashion houses, such as Chanel, use the word for
some of their special collections. These collections are often not for sale or they
are very difficult to purchase. Sometimes, “haute couture” is inappropriately used to
label non-dressmaking activities, such as fine art, music and more.
French leadership in European fashion may date from the
18th century, when the art, architecture, music, and fashions
of the French court at Versailles were imitated across Europe. Visitors
to Paris brought back clothing that was then copied by local dressmakers.
Stylish women also ordered fashion dolls dressed in the latest Parisian fashion
to serve as models. As railroads and steamships made European travel easier,
it was increasingly common for wealthy women to travel to Paris to shop for clothing
and accessories. French fitters and dressmakers were commonly thought to be the best
in Europe, and real Parisian garments were considered better than local imitations.
The couturier Charles Frederick Worth (October 13, 1826–March 10, 1895),
is widely considered the father of haute couture as it is known today. Although
born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, Worth made his mark in the French
fashion industry. Revolutionizing how dressmaking had been previously perceived,
Worth made it so the dressmaker became the artist of garnishment: a fashion designer.
While he created one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers,
he is best known for preparing a portfolio of designs that were shown on live models at the
House of Worth. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, and had a
duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth’s workshop. Worth combined individual
tailoring with a standardization more characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry,
which was also developing during this period.
Following in Worth’s footsteps were Callot Soeurs, Patou,
Poiret, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin, Chanel, Mainbocher, Schiaparelli,
Balenciaga, and Dior. Some of these fashion houses still exist today, under
the leadership of modern designers.
In the 1960s a group of young designers who had trained under
men like Dior and Balenciaga left these established couture houses and opened their
own establishments. The most successful of these young designers were Yves Saint Laurent,
Pierre Cardin, André Courrèges, and Emanuel Ungaro. Japanese native and Paris-based
Hanae Mori was also successful in establishing her own line.
Lacroix is one of the fashion houses to have been started in
the late 20th century. Other new houses have included Jean-Paul Gaultier
and Thierry Mugler. Due to the high expenses of producing haute couture
collections, Lacroix and Mugler have since ceased
their haute couture activities.
For all these fashion houses, custom clothing is no longer the main source of
income, often costing much more than it earns through direct sales; it only adds the a
ura of fashion to their ventures in ready-to-wear clothing and related luxury products
such as shoes and perfumes, and licensing ventures that earn greater
returns for the company. Excessive commercialization and profit-making can be
damaging, however. Cardin, for example, licensed with abandon in the 1980s and his name
lost most of its fashionable cachet when anyone could buy Cardin luggage at a discount store.
It is their ready-to-wear collections that are available to a wider audience, adding a
splash of glamour and the feel of haute
couture to more wardrobes.
The 1960s also featured a revolt against established fashion
standards by mods, rockers, and hippies, as well as an increasing
internationalization of the fashion scene. Jet travel had spawned a jet set
that partied—and shopped—just as happily in New York as in Paris. Rich women
no longer felt that a Paris dress was necessarily better than one sewn elsewhere.
While Paris is still pre-eminent in the fashion world, it is no
longer the sole arbiter of fashion.