Fashion Blog site about my line & opinions

Posts tagged “Balenciaga

L’Histoire de Mode~Corset

 

Click picture for 18th Century Corset Pattern

A corset is a garment worn to hold and shape the torso into a

desired shape for aesthetic or medical purposes (either for the duration

of wearing it, or with a more lasting effect). Both men and women are

known to wear corsets, though women are more common wearers.

In recent years, the term “corset” has also been borrowed by the fashion

industry to refer to tops which, to varying degrees, mimic the look of

traditional corsets without actually acting as one. While these modern

corsets and corset tops often feature lacing and/or boning and generally

mimic a historical style of corsets, they have very little if any effect

on the shape of the wearer’s body. Genuine corsets are usually made by

a corsetmaker and should be fitted to the individual wearer.

The word corset is derived from the Old French word corps, the diminutive of

body, which itself derives from corpus – Latin for body. The craft of corset construction

is known as corsetry, as is the general wearing of them. (The word corsetry is

sometimes also used as a collective plural form of corset.) Someone who makes

corsets is a corsetier or corsetière (French terms for a man and for a woman,

respectively), or sometimes simply a corsetmaker. The word corset came into general

use in the English language in 1785. The word was used in The Ladies Magazine

to describe a “quilted waistcoat” called un corset by the French. The word was used

to differentiate the lighter corset from the heavier stays of the period.

Fashion

The most common and well-known use of corsets is to slim the

body and make it conform to a fashionable silhouette. For women

this most frequently emphasizes a curvy figure, by reducing

the waist, and thereby exaggerating the bust and hips. However,

in some periods, corsets have been worn to achieve a tubular

straight-up-and-down shape, which involves minimizing the bust and hips.

For men, corsets are more customarily used to slim the figure. However,

there was a period from around 1820 to 1835 when a wasp-waisted figure

(a small, nipped-in look to the waist) was also desirable for men; this

was sometimes achieved by wearing a corset.

An overbust corset encloses the torso, extending from just under the arms

to the hips. An underbust corset begins just under the breasts and extends down

to the hips. Some corsets extend over the hips and, in very rare instances, reach the knees.

A shorter kind of corset, which covers the waist area (from low on the ribs to just

above the hips), is called a waist cincher. A corset may also include garters to hold up

stockings (alternatively a separate garter belt may be worn for that).

Normally a corset supports the visible dress, and

spreads the pressure from large dresses, such as the

crinoline and bustle. Sometimes a corset cover is used to

protect outer clothes from the corset and to smooth the lines

of the corset. The original corset cover was worn under the

corset to provide a layer between it and the body. Corsets

were not worn next to the skin, possibly due to difficulties

with laundering these items during the 19th century, as they

had steel boning and metal eyelets which would rust. The

corset cover would be in the form of a light chemise,

made from cotton lawn or silk.

Medical

People with spinal problems such as scoliosis or with internal injuries may be fitted

with a form of corset in order to immobilize and protect the torso. Andy Warhol was shot

in 1968 and never fully recovered, and wore a corset for the rest of his life.

Fetish

Aside from fashion and medical uses, corsets are also used

in sexual fetishism, most notably in BDSM activities. In BDSM, a

submissive can be forced to wear a corset which would be laced

very tight and give some degree of restriction to the wearer. A dominant

can also wear a corset, often black, but for entirely different reasons,

such as aesthetics, and to achieve a severe, armored, “unbending”,

commanding appearance. A very common fetish costume for

women is the dominatrix costume. Usually it consists of mostly

dark or even black clothing. The woman usually wears a corset or

bustier and stockings with high-heeled footwear. High boots

are quite common as they enhance the woman’s domination.

Women in dominatrix costumes usually carry an accessory such

as a whip or a riding crop. A specially designed corset, in which

the breasts and vulva are left exposed can be worn during.

vanilla sex or BDSM activities.

Corsets are typically constructed of a flexible material (like cloth,

particularly coutil, or leather) stiffened with boning (also called ribs or stays) inserted

into channels in the cloth or leather. In the 19th century, bones of elephant, moose,

and whale were favored for the boning. Plastic is now the most commonly

used material for lightweight corsets and the majority of poor quality corsets,

whereas spring or spiral steel is preferred for stronger corsets and generally the

better quality corset too. Other materials used for boning include ivory, wood,

and cane. (By contrast, a girdle is usually made of elasticized fabric,

without boning.)

Corsets are held together by lacing, usually (though

not always) at the back. Tightening or loosening the lacing

produces corresponding changes in the firmness of the corset.

Depending on the desired effect and time period, corsets can be

laced from the top down, from the bottom up, or both up from the

bottom and down from the top, using two laces that meet in the

middle. It is difficult—although not impossible—for a back-laced

corset-wearer to do his or her own lacing. In the Victorian

heyday of corsets, a well-to-do woman’s corset laces would

be tightened by her maid, and a gentleman’s by his valet.

However, Victorian corsets also had a buttoned or

hooked front opening called a busk. If the corset was

worn loosely, it was possible to leave the lacing as

adjusted and take the corset on and off using the front

opening (if the corset is worn snugly, this method will

damage the busk if the lacing is not significantly

loosened beforehand). Self-lacing is also almost impossible

with tightlacing, which strives for the utmost possible reduction

of the waist. Modern tightlacers, lacking servants,

are usually laced by spouses and partners.

By wearing a tightly-laced corset for extended periods, known

as tightlacing, men and women can learn to tolerate extreme waist constriction

and eventually reduce their natural waist size. Tightlacers dream of 16 inches (41 cm)

and 17 inches (43 cm) waists[citation needed], but most are satisfied with anything under

20 inches (51 cm). Some went so far that they could only breathe with the top part of their

lungs. This caused the bottom part of their lungs to fill with mucus, symtoms of this

include a slight but persistant cough and heavy breathing causing a heaving

appearance of the bosom. Until 1998, the Guinness Book of World Records

listed Ethel Granger as having the smallest waist on record at 13 inches (33 cm).

After 1998, the category changed to “smallest waist on a living person”

and Cathie Jung took the title with a 15 inches (38 cm) waist. Other women,

such as Polaire, also have achieved such reductions

(14 inches (36 cm) in her case).

However, these are extreme cases. Corsets were and are still usually

designed for support, with freedom of body movement, an important

consideration in their design. Present day corset-wearers usually tighten

the corset just enough to reduce their waists by 2 inches (5.1 cm) to

4 inches (10 cm); it is very difficult for a slender woman to achieve

as much as 6 inches (15 cm), although larger women can do so more easily.

In the past, a woman’s corset was usually worn over a chemise, a sleeveless

low-necked gown made of washable material (usually cotton or linen). It absorbed

perspiration and kept the corset and the gown clean. In modern times, an

undershirt or corset liner may be worn.

Moderate lacing is not incompatible with vigorous activity.

Indeed, during the second half of the 19th century, when corset

wearing was common, there were sport corsets specifically designed

to wear while bicycling, playing tennis, or horseback riding,

as well as for maternity wear.

The corset has been erroneously attributed to Catherine de’ Medici, wife

of King Henry II of France. She enforced a ban on thick waists at court attendance

during the 1550s. For nearly 350 years, women’s primary means of support was

the corset, with laces and stays made of whalebone or metal. Other

researchers have found evidence of the

use of corsets in early Crete.

The corset has undergone many changes. The corset was

originally known as stays in the early 16th century. It was a

simple bodice with tabs at the waist, stiffened by horn, buckram,

and whalebone. The center front was further reinforced by a busk

made of ivory, wood, or metal. It was most often laced from

the back, and was, at first, a garment reserved for the aristocracy.

Stays took a different form in the 18th century, whalebone began to be

used more, and there was more boning used in the garment. The shape of the

stays changed as well. The stays were low and wide in the front, while in the

back they could reach as high as the upper shoulder. Stays could be strapless
or use shoulder straps. The straps of the stays were attached in

the back and tied at the front sides.

The purpose of 18th century stays was to support the bust, confer

the fashionable conical shape while drawing the shoulders back. At this

time, the eyelets were reinforced with stitches, and were not placed

across from one another, but staggered. This allowed the stays to be

spiral laced. One end of the stay lace is inserted and knotted in the

bottom eyelet, the other end is wound through the stays’ eyelets

and tightened on the top. Tight-lacing was not common in this

time period, and indulged in only by the very fashionable.

Stays were worn by women in all societal levels, from

ladies of the court to street vendors. At this time, there

were two other variants of stays, jumps, which were

looser stays with attached sleeves, like

a jacket, and corsets.

Corsets were originally quilted waistcoats, worn by French women

as an alternative to stiff corsets. They were only quilted linen, laced in the

front, and un-boned. This garment was meant to be worn on informal occasions,

while stays were worn for court dress. In the 1790s, stays fell out of fashion. This

development coincided with the French Revolution, and the adoption of neoclassical

styles of dress. Interestingly, it was the men, Dandies, who began to wear corsets.

The fashion persisted thorough the 1840s, though after 1850 men who wore corsets

claimed they needed them for “back pain”.

Stays went away in the late 18th century, but the corset remained.

Corsets in the early 19th century lengthened to the hip, the lower

tabs replaced by gussets at the hip. Room was made for the bust in

front with more gussets, and the back lowered. The shoulder straps

disappeared in the 1840s for normal wear.

In the 1820s, fashion changed again, with the waistline lowered back to

almost the natural position. Corsets began to be made with some

padding and boning. Corsets began to be worn by all classes of society.

Some women made their own, while others bought their corsets. Corsets

were one of the first mass produced garments for women. Corsets began to

be more heavily boned in the 1840s. By 1850, steel

boning became popular.

With the advent of metal eyelets, tight lacing became possible.

The position of the eyelets changed, they were now situated across

from one another at the back. The front was now fastened with a metal

busk in front. Corsets were mostly white. The corsets of the 1850s-1860s

were shorter than the corsets of the 19th century through 1840s. This

was because of a change in the silhouette of women’s fashion.

The 1850s and 60s emphasized the hoopskirt. After the 1860s,

when the hoop fell out of style, the corset became longer to

mold the abdomen, exposed by the new lines of the

princess or cuirass style.

During the Edwardian period, the straight front corset (also known as

the S-Curve corset) was introduced. This corset was straight in front, with a

pronounced curve at the back that forced the upper body forward, and

the derrière out. This style was worn from 1900-1908.

The corset reached its longest length in the early 20th century.

The longline corset at first reached from the bust down to the

upper thigh. There was also a style of longline corset that started

under the bust, and necessitated the wearing of a brassiere.

This style was meant to complement the new silhouette.

It was a boneless style, much closer to a modern

girdle than the traditional corset. The longline

style was abandoned during World War I.

The corset fell from fashion in the 1920s in Europe and North America,

replaced by girdles and elastic brassieres, but survived as an article of costume.

Originally an item of lingerie, the corset has become a popular item of outerwear in

the fetish, BDSM and goth subcultures. In the fetish and BDSM literature, there is often

much emphasis on tightlacing, and many corset

makers cater to the fetish market.

Outside the fetish community, living history re-enactors

and historic costume enthusiasts still wear corsets

according to their original purpose, to give the proper

shape to the figure when wearing historic fashions.

In this case, the corset is underwear rather than

outerwear. Skilled corset makers are available to

make reproductions of historic corset shapes,

or to design new styles.

There was a brief revival of the corset in the late 1940s and early

1950s, in the form of the waist cincher sometimes called a “waspie”. This

was used to give the hourglass figure dictated by Christian Dior’s ‘New Look’.

However, use of the waist cincher was restricted to haute couture, and mos

t women continued to use girdles. This revival was brief, as the New Look

gave way to a less dramatically-shaped silhouette.

Since the late 1980s, the corset has experienced periodic

revivals, which have usually originated in haute couture and

which have occasionally trickled through to mainstream fashion.

These revivals focus on the corset as an item of outerwear

rather than underwear. The strongest of these revivals

was seen in the Autumn 2001 fashion collections and

coincided with the release of the film Moulin Rouge!, the costumes

for which featured many corsets as characteristic of the era. Another

fashion movement which has renewed interest in the corset is the

“Steampunk” culture, which utilizes late-Victorian fashion

shapes in new ways. The look was popularized by the

costumes in the film “The Golden Compass.”


ALMOST THERE!! 1930 VIEWS CONTEST CLOSING SOON!!

CLICK PHOTO FOR DETAILS.

ONCE THE SITE VIEW IS AT 1930 CONTEST IS OVER!

ENTER FOR YOUR CHANCE TO WIN FREE JEWELRY DESIGNED BY US UNDER OUR SHOP PAGE.

**More contests coming soon!**


Qoute of the Day: 18 Feb. ’11~P.J. O’Rourke

“Never wear anything that panics the cat.”~P.J. O’Rourke

O'Rourke (born November 14, 1947) is an American political satirist, journalist, writer, and author. O'Rourke is the H. L. Mencken Research Fellow at the Cato Institute and is a regular correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly, The American Spectator, and The Weekly Standard, and frequent panelist on National Public Radio's game show Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me! He is known in the United Kingdom as the face of a long-running series of television advertisements for British Airways in the 1990s.


JEWELRY CONTEST

1930by ChrisJackson is celebrating YOU for all of the support you have given us!  With this we’re offering a Jewelry Giveaway! To make this interesting-we will allow you to choose YOUR own jewelry elements for your prize-any style of Necklace or Ring we have on the shop page! We want to make sure you enjoy your prize ^_^

**Click the above POSTER for more information on Rules & Regulations**


This or That~RTW SPRING 2011 Runway Shows

This is another one of our Video “This or That,” tell us which showing was your favorite. There are a few but Dior hits my top list…at least for the day. What about you?~Comment us!


L’Histoire de Mode~Haute Couture

Haute Couture

Haute couture (French for “high sewing” or “high dressmaking”) refers to the creation

of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer,

and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention

to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often using

time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Couture is a common abbreviation

of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit.

It originally referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth’s

work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. In modern

France, haute couture is a “protected name” that can be used

only by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However,

the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted

clothing, whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as

Milan, London, New York and Tokyo.

In France, the term haute couture is protected by law and is defined by

the Chambre de commerce et d’industrie de Paris based in Paris, France.

Their rules state that only “those companies mentioned on the list drawn up each year

by a commission domiciled at the Ministry for Industry are entitled to avail themselves”

of the label haute couture. The criteria for haute couture were established in 1945 and

updated in 1992. To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term

haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the

Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules:

  • Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings.
  • Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time.
  • Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five runs/exits with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.

However, the term haute couture may have been misused by

ready-to-wear brands since the late 1980s, so that its true meaning

may have become blurred with that of prêt-à-porter (the French term for

ready-to-wear fashion) in the public perception. Every haute couture house also

markets prêt-à-porter collections, which typically deliver a higher return on investment

than their custom clothing . Falling revenues have forced a few couture

houses to abandon their less profitable couture division and concentrate

solely on the less prestigious prêt-à-porter. These houses, such as

Italian designer Roberto Capucci, all of whom have their

workshops in Italy, are no longer

considered haute couture.

Many top designer fashion houses, such as Chanel, use the word for

some of their special collections. These collections are often not for sale or they

are very difficult to purchase. Sometimes, “haute couture” is inappropriately used to

label non-dressmaking activities, such as fine art, music and more.

French leadership in European fashion may date from the

18th century, when the art, architecture, music, and fashions

of the French court at Versailles were imitated across Europe. Visitors

to Paris brought back clothing that was then copied by local dressmakers.

Stylish women also ordered fashion dolls dressed in the latest Parisian fashion

to serve as models. As railroads and steamships made European travel easier,

it was increasingly common for wealthy women to travel to Paris to shop for clothing

and accessories. French fitters and dressmakers were commonly thought to be the best

in Europe, and real Parisian garments were considered better than local imitations.

The couturier Charles Frederick Worth (October 13, 1826–March 10, 1895),

is widely considered the father of haute couture as it is known today. Although

born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, Worth made his mark in the French

fashion industry. Revolutionizing how dressmaking had been previously perceived,

Worth made it so the dressmaker became the artist of garnishment: a fashion designer.

While he created one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers,

he is best known for preparing a portfolio of designs that were shown on live models at the

House of Worth. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, and had a

duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth’s workshop. Worth combined individual

tailoring with a standardization more characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry,

which was also developing during this period.

Following in Worth’s footsteps were Callot Soeurs, Patou,

Poiret, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin, Chanel, Mainbocher, Schiaparelli,

Balenciaga, and Dior. Some of these fashion houses still exist today, under

the leadership of modern designers.

In the 1960s a group of young designers who had trained under

men like Dior and Balenciaga left these established couture houses and opened their

own establishments. The most successful of these young designers were Yves Saint Laurent,

Pierre Cardin, André Courrèges, and Emanuel Ungaro. Japanese native and Paris-based

Hanae Mori was also successful in establishing her own line.

Lacroix is one of the fashion houses to have been started in

the late 20th century. Other new houses have included Jean-Paul Gaultier

and Thierry Mugler. Due to the high expenses of producing haute couture

collections, Lacroix and Mugler have since ceased

their haute couture activities.

For all these fashion houses, custom clothing is no longer the main source of

income, often costing much more than it earns through direct sales; it only adds the a

ura of fashion to their ventures in ready-to-wear clothing and related luxury products

such as shoes and perfumes, and licensing ventures that earn greater

returns for the company. Excessive commercialization and profit-making can be

damaging, however. Cardin, for example, licensed with abandon in the 1980s and his name

lost most of its fashionable cachet when anyone could buy Cardin luggage at a discount store.

It is their ready-to-wear collections that are available to a wider audience, adding a

splash of glamour and the feel of haute

couture to more wardrobes.

The 1960s also featured a revolt against established fashion

standards by mods, rockers, and hippies, as well as an increasing

internationalization of the fashion scene. Jet travel had spawned a jet set

that partied—and shopped—just as happily in New York as in Paris. Rich women

no longer felt that a Paris dress was necessarily better than one sewn elsewhere.

While Paris is still pre-eminent in the fashion world, it is no

longer the sole arbiter of fashion.

Couture Samples:


L’Histoire de Mode #1~Stiletto

 

 

Stiletto Heels

A stiletto heel is a long, thin, high heel found on some boots and shoes, usually for

women. It is named after the stiletto dagger, the phrase being first recorded in the early 1930s.

Stiletto heels may vary in length from 2.5 centimetres (1 inch) to 25 cm (10 inches) or more if a

platform sole is used, and are sometimes defined as having a diameter at the ground of

less than 1 cm (slightly less than half an inch). Stiletto-style heels 5 cm or shorter are called

kitten heels. Not all high slim heels merit the description stiletto. The extremely slender

original Italian-style stiletto heels of the late 1950s and very early 1960s were no more

than 5mm in diameter for much of their length, although the heel sometimes

flared out a little at the top-piece (tip). After their demise in the mid-late 1960s,

such slender heels were difficult to find until recently due to changes in the way

heels were mass-produced. A real stiletto heel has a stem of solid steel or alloy. The

more usual method of mass-producing high shoe heels, i.e. moulded plastic with an

internal metal tube for reinforcement, does not

achieve the true stiletto shape.

Relatively thin high heels were certainly around in the late 19th

century, as numerous fetish drawings attest. Firm photographic

evidence exists in the form of photographs of Parisian singer Mistinguett

from the 1940s. These shoes were designed by Andre Perugia, who began

designing shoes in 1906. It seems unlikely that he invented the stiletto, but

he is probably the first firmly documented designer of the high, slim heel. The

word stiletto is derived from stylus, meaning a pin or stalk. Its usage in footwear

first appeared in print in the New Statesman magazine in 1959: “She came …forward,

her walk made lopsided by the absence of one heel of the stilettos”.

High heel shoes were worn by men and women courtiers. The design of the

stiletto heel originally came from the late Kristin S. Wagner but would

not become popular until the late 1950s. The stiletto heel came with the advent of

technology using a supporting metal shaft or stem embedded into the heel, instead

of wood or other, weaker materials that required a wide heel. This revival of the

opulent heel style can be attributed to the designer Roger Vivier and such designs

became very popular in the 1950s.

As time went on, stiletto heels became known more for their erotic

nature than for their ability to make height. Stiletto heels are a common

fetish item. As a fashion item, their popularity was changing over time.

After an initial wave of popularity in the 1950s, they reached their most refined

shape in the early 1960s, when the toes of the shoes which bore them became as

slender and elongated as the stiletto heels themselves. As a result of the overall sharpness

of outline, it was customary for women to refer to the whole shoe as a “stiletto”, not

just the heel, via synecdoche (pars pro toto). Although they officially faded from the

scene after the Beatle era began, their popularity continued at street level, and women

stubbornly refused to give them up even after they could no longer readily find them in

the mainstream shops.

A version of the stiletto heel was reintroduced as soon as 1974

by Manolo Blahnik, who dubbed his “new” heel the Needle. Similar heels were stocked at

the big Biba store in London, by Russell and Bromley and by smaller boutiques. Old,

unsold stocks of pointed-toe stilettos, and contemporary efforts to replicate

them (lacking the true stiletto heel because of changes in the way heels

were by then being mass-produced) were sold in street fashion markets

and became popular with punks, and with other fashion “tribes” of the

late 1970s until supplies of the inspirational original styles dwindled in

the early 1980s. Subsequently, round-toe shoes with slightly thicker

(sometimes cone-shaped) semi-stiletto heels, often very high in an attempt

to convey slenderness (the best example of this being the shoes sold in

London by Derber), were frequently worn at the office with

wide-shouldered power suits.

The style survived through much

of the 1980s but almost completely disappeared during the 1990s,

when professional and college-age women took to wearing shoes

with thick, block heels. However, the slender stiletto heel staged

a major comeback after 2000, when young women adopted

the style for dressing up office wear or adding a feminine

touch to casual wear, like jeans. Stiletto heels are particularly

associated with the image of the femme fatale. They are often

considered to be a seductive item of clothing, and often

feature in popular culture.

Stilettos give the optical illusion of a longer, slimmer leg, a smaller foot,

and a greater overall height. They also alter the wearer’s posture and gait,

flexing the calf muscles, and making the

bust and buttocks more

prominent.

All high heels counter the natural functionality of the foot,

which can create skeleton/muscular problems if they are worn

excessively. Stiletto heels are no exception, but some people assume

that because they are thinner they must be worse for you. In fact, they are

safer to wear than the other extreme of high heel fashion, the platform shoe.

Despite their impracticality, their popularity remains undiminished – as Terry

DeHavilland (UK shoe designer) has said, “people say they’re bad for the

feet but they’re good for the mind. What’s more important?”

Stiletto heels concentrate a large amount of force into a small area.

The great pressure under such a heel (greater than that under the feet of an elephant.)

can cause damage to carpets and floors. The stiletto heel will also sink into soft

ground, making it impractical for

outdoor wear on grass.

Samples:

Ed Hardy

Dior

Jimmy Choo, Cole Haan, Sergio Rossi, Burberry, Louboutin, Guess, MIA, Madden

Balenciaga

Ducati

DeSquared F/W 10 (look familiar?)