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“Never wear anything that panics the cat.”~P.J. O’Rourke
The kimono (着物) is a Japanese traditional garment worn by women,
men and children. The word “kimono”, which literally means a “thing to wear”
(ki “wear” and mono “thing”), has come to denote these full-length robes. The
standard plural of the word kimono in English is kimonos, but the unmarked
Japanese plural kimono is also sometimes used. Kimonos are T-shaped,
straight-lined robes worn so that the hem falls to the ankle, with attached
collars and long, wide sleeves. Kimonos are wrapped around the body, always
with the left side over the right (except when dressing the dead for burial),
and secured by a sash called an obi, which is tied at the back. Kimonos are
generally worn with traditional footwear (especially zōri or geta)
and split-toe socks (tabi).
Today, kimonos are most often worn by women, and on special occasions.
Traditionally, unmarried women wore a style of kimono called furisode,
with almost floor-length sleeves, on special occasions. A few older women and even fewer men still
wear the kimono on a daily basis. Men wear the kimono most often at weddings, tea ceremonies,
and other very special or very formal occasions. Professional sumo wrestlers are often
seen in the kimono because they are required to wear
traditional Japanese dress whenever
appearing in public.
As the kimono has another name, gofuku (呉服, literally “clothes of Wu (吳)”),
the earliest kimonos were heavily influenced by traditional Han Chinese clothing,
known today as hanfu (漢服, kanfuku in Japanese), through Japanese embassies
to China which resulted in extensive Chinese culture adoptions by Japan, as early
as the 5th century CE. It was during the 8th century, however, that Chinese
fashions came into style among the Japanese, and the overlapping collar became
particularly a women’s fashion. During Japan’s Heian period (794–1192 CE),
the kimono became increaslingly stylized, though one still wore a half-apron,
called a mo, over it. During the Muromachi age (1392–1573 CE), the Kosode,
single kimono formerly considered underwear, began to be worn without the
hakama (trousers, divided skirt) over it, and thus began to be held closed by
an obi “belt”. During the Edo period (1603–1867 CE), the sleeves began to grow
in length, especially among unmarried women, and the Obi became wider, with
various styles of tying coming into fashion. Since then, the basic shape of
both the men’s and women’s kimono has remained essentially unchanged.
Kimonos made with exceptional skill from fine materials have
been regarded as great works of art.
The formal kimono was replaced by the more convenient Western clothes
and Yukata as everyday wear. After an edict by Emperor Meiji,police, railroad men
and teachers moved to Western clothes. The Western clothes became the army and school uniform
for boys. After the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, kimono wearers often became victims of robbery
because they could not run very fast due to the restricting nature of the kimono on the body and
geta slippers. The Tokyo Women’s & Children’s Wear Manufacturers’ Association
(東京婦人子供服組合) promoted Western clothes. Between 1920 and 1930 the sailor outfit replaced
the undivided hakama in school uniforms for girls. The 1932 fire at Shirokiya’s Nihombashi
is said to have been the catalyst for the decline in kimonos as everyday wear. Kimono-clad Japanese
women did not wear panties and several women refused to jump into safety nets because they were ashamed
of being seen from below. (It is, however, suggested, that this is an urban myth.)The national uniform,
Kokumin-fuku (国民服), a type of Western clothes, was mandated for males in 1940.Today
most people wear Western clothes and wear the cooler and more
comfortable yukata for special occasions.
Kimonos for men are available in various sizes and should fall
approximately to the ankle without tucking. A woman’s kimono
has additional length to allow for the ohashori, the tuck that can be
seen under the obi, which is used to adjust the kimono to the individual
wearer. An ideally tailored kimono has sleeves that fall to the wrist
when the arms are lowered.
Kimonos are traditionally made from a single bolt of fabric called a tan.
Tan come in standard dimensions—about 14 inches wide and 12½ yards long—and the
entire bolt is used to make one kimono. The finished kimono consists of four main strips
of fabric—two panels covering the body and two panels forming the sleeves—
with additional smaller strips forming the narrow front panels and collar.
Historically, kimonos were often taken apart for washing as separate panels
and resewn by hand. Because the entire bolt remains in the finished
garment without cutting, the kimono can be retailored
easily to fit a different person.
The maximum width of the sleeve is dictated by the width of the fabric.
The distance from the center of the spine to the end of the sleeve could not
exceed twice the width of the fabric. Traditional kimono fabric was typically
no more than 36 centimeters (14 inches) wide. Thus the distance from spine to
wrist could not exceed a maximum of roughly 68 centimeters (27 inches).
Modern kimono fabric is woven as wide as 42 centimeters (17 inches) to
accommodate modern Japanese body sizes. Very tall or heavy people,
such as sumo wrestlers, must have kimonos custom-made by either
joining multiple bolts, weaving custom-width fabric, or using
non-standard size fabric.
Traditionally, kimonos are sewn by hand, but even machine-made kimonos
require substantial hand-stitching. Kimono fabrics are also frequently hand made
and hand decorated. Various techniques such as yūzen dye resist are used for
applying decoration and patterns to the base cloth. Repeating patterns that cover a
large area of a kimono are traditionally done with the yūzen resist technique
and a stencil. Over time there have been many variations in color, fabric
and style, as well as accessories such as the obi.
The kimono and obi are traditionally made of silk, silk brocade, silk crepes
(such as chirimen) and satin weaves (such as rinzu). Modern kimonos are also
widely available in less-expensive easy-care fabrics such as rayon, cotton
sateen, cotton, polyester and other synthetic fibers. Silk is still
considered the ideal fabric.
Customarily, woven patterns and dyed repeat patterns are considered informal.
Formal kimonos have free-style designs dyed over the whole surface or along the hem.
During the Heian period, kimonos were worn with up to a dozen or more colorful contrasting layers,
with each combination of colors being a named pattern.Today, the kimono is normally worn with
a single layer on top of one or more undergarments. The pattern of the kimono can also
determine in which season it should be worn. For example, a pattern with butterflies or
cherry blossoms would be worn in spring. Watery designs are common during the summer.
A popular autumn motif is the russet leaf of the Japanese maple; for winter, designs
may include bamboo, pine trees and plum blossoms.
A popular form of textile art in Japan is shibori (intricate tie dye),
found on some of the more expensive kimonos and haori kimono jackets.
Patterns are created by minutely binding the fabric and masking off areas,
then dying it, usually done by hand. When the bindings are removed, an
undyed pattern is revealed. Shibori work can be further enhanced with
yuzen (hand applied) drawing or painting with textile dyes or with embroidery;
it is then known as tsujigahana. Shibori textiles are very time consuming to
produce and require great skill, so the textiles and garments created from
them are very expensive and highly prized.
Old kimonos are often recycled in various ways: altered to make haori, hiyoku, or
kimonos for children, used to patch similar kimono, used for making handbags and similar
kimono accessories, and used to make covers, bags or cases for various implements, especially
for sweet-picks used in tea ceremonies. Damaged kimonos can be disassembled and resewn
to hide the soiled areas, and those with damage below the waistline can be worn under a hakama.
Historically, skilled craftsmen laboriously picked the silk thread from old kimono and rewove
it into a new textile in the width of a heko obi for men’s kimono, using a
recycling weaving method called saki-ori.
Parts of a kimono
- Dōura (胴裏) upper lining on a woman’s kimono
- Eri (衿) collar
- Fuki hem guard
- Furi sleeve below the armhole
- Maemigoro (前身頃) front main panel, excluding sleeves. Covering portion of the other side of the back, maemigoro is divided into “right maemigoro” and “left maemigoro”.
- Miyatsukuchi opening under the sleeve
- Okumi (衽) front inside panel situated on the front edge of the left and right, excluding the sleeve of a kimono. Until the collar, down to the bottom of the dress goes, up and down part of the strip of cloth. Have sewn the front body. It is also called “袵”
- Sode (袖) sleeve
- Sodeguchi (袖口) sleeve opening
- Sodetsuke (袖付) kimono armhole
- Susomawashi (裾回し) lower lining
- Tamoto (袂) sleeve pouch
- Tomoeri (共衿) over-collar (collar protector)
- Uraeri (裏襟) inner collar
- Ushiromigoro (後身頃) back main panel, excluding sleeves, covering the back portion. They are basically sewn back-centered and consist of “right ushiromigoro” and “left ushiromigoro”. But for wool fablic, ushiro migoro consists of 1 clothes.
1930by ChrisJackson is celebrating YOU for all of the support you have given us! With this we’re offering a Jewelry Giveaway! To make this interesting-we will allow you to choose YOUR own jewelry elements for your prize-any style of Necklace or Ring we have on the shop page! We want to make sure you enjoy your prize ^_^
**Click the above POSTER for more information on Rules & Regulations**
“I have heard with admiring submission the experience of the lady who declared that the sense of being perfectly well-dressed gives a feeling of inward tranquility which religion is powerless to bestow.”~Ralph Waldo Emerson, Letters and Social Aims
Athletic shoe is a generic name for the footwear primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise but in recent years has come to be used for casual everyday activities.
They are also known as trainers (British English), sandshoes, gym boots or joggers (Australian English), running shoes, runners or gutties (Canadian English, Australian English, Hiberno-English), sneakers, tennis shoes (North American English, Australian English), gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, tackies(South African English and Hiberno-English), rubber shoes (Philippine English) or canvers (Nigerian English).
The idea of a “sneaker” did not come along until an American inventor, Charles Goodyear, patented the process for the vulcanization of rubber.
While many believe that the first basketball shoe was the famous Converse All Stars (developed in 1917), this is mistaken. The Spalding company produced shoes specifically for the game of basketball as early as 1907.
By the early 1900s, sneakers were being produced by small rubber companies who specialized in the production of bicycle tires. U.S. Rubber, introduced Keds in 1916, about the same time that Converse was marketing its All Star. Other companies, including B.F. Goodrich and Spalding Co., were producing tennis shoes and smaller family-owned companies were manufacturing early cleated shoes. At first, the market for sneakers was small and practically invisible, but after World War I, the U.S. turned to sports and athletes as a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U.S. market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor.
As the 1920s and 1930s approached, these companies added traction, and also started marketing them for different sports. A huge breakthrough of this time was the separation of designs for men and women. At this time, sneakers were used strictly for athletic events. When the Olympics were revived, this attracted more fans not only to sports, but to sneakers as well. In 1936, a French brand by the name of Spring Court was born as the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature 8 ventilation channels on the vulcanized natural rubber sole.
The 1950s gave American families more leisure time, and as the baby boom started, more families chose to dress their youth in sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales in the United States soared to six hundred million pairs a year in 1957, which led leather shoe makers to claim that “sneakers are bad for children’s feet” to which sneaker producers replied “sneakers cure the syndrome of Inhibited Feet.”
In the early 1960s, sneakers were imported to the United States from Japan, but accounted for only a small portion of the market until Nike founders Phil Knight and Bill Bowerman began importing Tiger shoes under the name Blue Ribbon Sports.
In the 1970s, sneakers led their own way as jogging quickly became popular and so did the necessity to have a pair of shoes for the occasion. Until this time, factories had been concerned with high production, but now the companies started to market their products as a lifestyle purpose. Soon there were shoes for football, jogging, basketball, running—every sport had its own shoe. This was made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology.
By the 1980s, sneakers were everywhere; Woody Allen wore them to the ballet, Led Zeppelin wore them in their 1976 documentary, and Dustin Hoffman wore them while playing reporter Carl Bernstein in the movie All the President’s Men. The shoes originally developed for sports became the mainstay for most people. Nike and Reebok were among the market leaders. Newer brands went in and out of fashion, and sneaker companies started shelling out major endorsements to players. One of, if not the largest, endorsements was to Chicago player Michael Jordan, for a contract with Nike to make his own signature line of shoes and apparel.
During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills. Sports endorsements grew larger and marketing budgets went through the roof. Sneakers became a fashion statement, and definition of identity and personality rather than humble athletic aids. http://www.drpribut.com/sports/sneaker_odyssey.htmlAthletic shoes are also often worn by children to school.
Use in sports
The term athletic shoes is typically used for running in a marathon or half marathon, basketball, and tennis (amongst others) but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football, which are generally known as “Studs,” or in North America as cleats.
Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole, appropriate tread for the function ability to absorb impact. As the industry and design have expanded, the term “athletic shoes” is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe. Today’s designs even include sandal, Mary Jane and even elevated styles suitable for running, dancing and jumping.
The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds, typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber. While the original design was basic, manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for the different purposes that they can be used for. A specific example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running. Many of these shoes are made up to a very large size because of athletes with large feet.
High-end marathon running shoes will often come in different shapes suited to different foot types, gait etc. Generally, these shoes are divided into neutral, overpronation and underpronation (supination) running shoes to fit the respective foot strike of the runners. As running shoes become more advanced, amateur joggers, as well as marathon runners, are beginning to purchase shoes based on their running style and foot arch. This is often important for injury prevention, as well as to increase running efficiency.
There are a variety of specialized shoes designed for specific uses:
- Racing flats
- Track shoe
- Skate shoes
- Climbing shoe
- Approach shoe
- Wrestling shoes
- Football boot
- Dance Shoe
- High-tops cover the ankle.
- Low-tops do not cover the ankle.
- Mid-cut are in-between high-tops and low-tops.
- Sneaker boots extend to the calf.
Sneakers or canvas shoes are casual athletic shoes.
Sneaker collectors, called “Sneakerheads”, use sneakers as fashionable items. Casual sneakers like the Air Force One (Nike) or Superstar (Adidas) have become icons in today’s pop culture. Artistically-modified sneakers can sell for upwards of $500. In more recent years, the classic shoe Nike Dunk has come attention to sneakerheads. During the release of these shoes people often line up several hours before the shops while open patiently waiting to get their hands on the shoes. There artistically-modified sneakers can sell for up to $500 depending on its popularity. The opening day cost for these shoes can range from USD $60-300.
The “Shoe Games” is a termed used by many people who buy and sells shoes for profit. This type of buying and re-selling started to become popular during the early 1970s when Nike first started to make basketball shoes, and began to rise with the introduction of “Air Force 1”. In 1984 the Shoe Game took off with the introduction of Nike’s “Air Jordan”. As the years went on Nike Came out with many shoes, naming them after basketball players, and maximizing their profits by doing limited releases, meaning a store would only carry a certain amount of shoes and once all stores are out, no more reproductions are made, and that is how many “Sneakerheads” make their profits. Each year after the introduction of the first style of shoe Nike would name the next years version two, three, and so on. For example, one of the most profitable shoes was the Nike Air Jordans XXIII, the twenty third release of Nike’s Air Jordans. Twenty-three was a big deal because Michael Jordan’s number is Twenty-three. People camped out hours sometimes days before to buy these limited edition shoes. The “Shoe Game” became very popular and productive in the late 1990s’ and continue to be very profitable until about 2010. This was mainly because the drop in the American Economy.
Large brands include:
- DC Shoes
- Jordan shoes
- Li Ning
- New Balance
- PF Flyers
- Sperry Top-Sider
- UK Gear
“What a strange power there is in clothing.”~Isaac Bashevis Singer
“Judging from the ugly and repugnant things that are sometimes in vogue, it would seem as though fashion were desirous of exhibiting its power by getting us to adopt the most atrocious things for its sake alone.”~Georg Simmel
“Is not the most erotic part of the body wherever the clothing affords a glimpse?”~Roland Barthes
This is another one of our Video “This or That,” tell us which showing was your favorite. There are a few but Dior hits my top list…at least for the day. What about you?~Comment us!
Rachel Zoe is far too pregnant to schlep to New York to show
her debut contemporary collection at NYFW. Luckily, she’s
released the full look book. Zoe describes her collection as
“uptown chic and downtown cool infused with Parisian elegance
and London street style.” There’s a lot of YSL le smoking-inspired
tuxes and suiting, and ’70s style boho silk blouses with bows
and tiered ruffled dresses. It’s all very Zoe, even though, she
previously told WWD, “I’d imagine everybody is expecting
something from me that’s kind of a Seventies, uberboho-
glam kind of thing, and, you know, very accessorized.
And it’s not.” Judge for yourself. “Seventies uberboho-
glam” or not, it’s all pretty cute and utterly wearable.
I must say that I did look through the lookbook & honestly there isn’t anything to see that’s new. I would love to have said that it was a clear hit & miss for the majority of the collection but it would be a complete lie. The Collection was not cohesive, the only cohesian was in the color scheme. There was no feeling of any sort of strory behind the collection, no mystery, no innovation. To be honest it looks like a college student’s first lookbook for a local store. There is no way that Rachel Zoe should be showing at New York Fashion Week. Fashion Week is an honor & privellege to be a part of, afterall numerous designers yearn & dream to show in the tents. She is a stylist & should remain a styist, as I’ve said numerous times, I have nothing against her personally as I do not know her. However, her fashion sense within her own collection is a tad bit questionable.
Click the above photo to be taken directly to the Lookbook.
Fashion photography is a genre of photography devoted
to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography
is most often conducted for advertisements or fashionmagazines such
as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Allure. Over time, fashion photography has
developed its own aesthetic in which the clothes and fashions are
enhanced by the presence of exotic locations or accessories.
Photography was developed in the 1830s, but the earliest popular technique, the
daguerreotype, was unsuitable for mass printing. In 1856, Adolphe Braun
published a book containing 288 photographs of Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione,
a Tuscan noblewoman at the court of Napoleon III. The photos depict her in her
official court garb, making her the first fashion model.
In the first decade of the 20th century, advances in
halftone printing allowed fashion photographs to be featured
in magazines. Fashion photography made its first appearance in
French magazines such as La mode practique. In 1909, Condé Nast took
over Vogue magazine and also contributed to the beginnings of fashion
photography. In 1911, photographer Edward Steichen was “dared” by
Lucien Vogel, the publisher of Jardin des Modes and La Gazette du Bon Ton,
to promote fashion as a fine art by the use of photography. Steichen
then took photos of gowns designed by couturier Paul Poiret.
These photographs were published in the April 1911 issue of
the magazine Art et Décoration. According to Jesse Alexander,
This is “…now considered to be the first ever modern fashion
photography shoot. That is, photographing the garments in such
a way as to convey a sense of their physical quality as well as
their formal appearance, as opposed to simply illustrating the object.”
At this time, special emphasis was placed on staging the shots, a process
first developed by Baron Adolf de Meyer, who shot his models in natural
environments and poses. Vogue was followed by its rival, Harper’s Bazaar, and
the two companies were leaders in the field of fashion photography throughout
the 1920s and 1930s. House photographers such as Edward Steichen,
George Hoyningen-Huene, Horst P. Horst and Cecil Beaton transformed
the genre into an outstanding art form. Europe, and especially
Germany, was for a short time the leader
in fashion photography.
But now with that change in time every country has taken
considerable measures to promote the field of photography.
In the mid 1940s as World War II approached, the focus
shifted to the United States, where Vogue and Harper’s continued
their old rivalry. House photographers such as Irving Penn,
Martin Munkacsi, Richard Avedon, and Louise Dahl-Wolfe would
shape the look of fashion photography for the following decades.
Richard Avedon revolutionized fashion photography — and redefined
the role of the fashion photographer — in the post-World War II era
with his imaginative images of the modern woman. Today, his work is being
exhibited in the Norton Museum in West Palm Beach, FL. This exhibition features
more than 200 works and spans Avedon’s entire career, including vintage
prints, contact sheets, and original magazines from Harper’s Bazaar,
Vogue and The New Yorker.
The artists abandoned their rigid forms for a much freer style. In 1936,
Martin Munkacsi made the first photographs of models in sporty poses at the beach.
Under the artistic direction of Alexey Brodovitch, the Harper’s
Bazaar quickly introduced this new style into its magazine.
In postwar London, John French pioneered a new form
of fashion photography suited to reproduction in
newsprint, involving where possible reflected
natural light and low contrast.
After the deaths of Richard Avedon, Helmut Newton and Herb Ritts,
some of today’s most famous fashion photographers are Patrick Demarchelier, Steven Meisel,
Mario Testino, Peter Lindbergh and Annie Leibovitz.
“If you are a dog and your owner suggests that you wear a sweater… suggest that he wear a tail.”~Fran Lebowitz
DON’T FORGET TO GO THE SHOP PAGE & PUT IN AN ORDER. CLOTHES COMING SOON!!
JEWELRY CONEST COMING UP!!
Burn Test – CAUTION. WARNING. BE CAREFUL!
This should only be done by skilled burners! Make sure there is a bucket of water nearby and that you burn in a metal bucket or non-plastic sink.
What it is & how to do it:
To identify fabric that is unknown, a simple burn test can be
done to determine if the fabric is a natural fiber, manmade fiber,
or a blend of natural and manmade fibers. The burn test is used by
many fabric stores and designers and takes practice to determine the
exact fiber content. However, an inexperienced person can still determine
the difference between many fibers to “narrow” the choices down to natural
or manmade fibers. This elimination process will give information
necessary to decide the care of the fabric.
It’s important to do a burn test in a well ventilated area to avoid inhaling potentially toxic fumes. At minimum, open some windows, or better yet, do the test outside on a calm day and avoid inhaling the fumes from the burning fibers.
• Pre-wash the mystery fabric to remove
any finishes that may affect the burn
characteristics. Cut fabric swatches for
testing approximately 2″ square.
• Use long tweezers to hold the swatches
• Use a non-flammable container to place
under the burning swatch—a large
ashtray or glass dish will work, as will a
metal baking pan.
• Use a lighter, an unscented candle or a
fireplace starter to create a small flame.
• Keep water nearby in the event of a
flare-up, or do the testing near a sink.
• If you have long hair, tie it back out of
the way of the flame.
WARNING: All fibers will burn! Asbestos treated fibers are, for the most
part fire proof. The burning test should be done with caution. Use a small piece
of fabric only. Hold the fabric with tweezers, not your fingers. Burn over a metal dish with
soda in the bottom or even water in the bottom of the dish. Some fabrics will ignite and melt.
The result is burning drips which can adhere to fabric
or skin and cause a serious burn.
Cotton is a plant fiber. When ignited it burns with a steady flame
and smells like burning leaves. The ash left is easily crumbled.
Small samples of burning cotton can be blown out as you would
a candle. Cotton fibers ignite as the flame draws near.
Linen is also a plant fiber but different from cotton in that the
individual plant fibers which make up the yarn are long where cotton fibers
are short. Linen takes longer to ignite. The fabric closest to the ash is very brittle.
Linen is easily extinguished by blowing on it as you would a candle.
Silk is a protein fiber and usually burns readily, not
necessarily with a steady flame, and smells like burning
hair. The ash is easily crumbled. Silk samples are not
as easily extinguished as cotton or linen.
Wool is also a protein fiber but is harder to ignite than silk as the individual
“hair” fibers are shorter than silk and the weave of the fabrics is generally looser
than with silk. The flame is steady but more difficult to keep burning. The smell
of burning wool is like burning hair.
Man Made Fibers
(Synthetic fibers curl away from the heat and tend to “melt.” Hard lumps are the remains of melted synthetic fibers.)
Acetate is made from cellulose (wood fibers), technically cellulose
acetate. Acetate burns readily with a flickering flame that cannot be
easily extinguished. The burning cellulose drips and leaves a hard ash.
The smell is similar to burning wood chips.
Acrylic technically acrylonitrile is made from natural gas
and petroleum. Acrylics burn readily due to the fiber content and the
lofty, air filled pockets. A match or cigarette dropped on an acrylic blanket
can ignite the fabric which will burn rapidly unless extinguished.
The ash is hard. The smell is acrid or harsh.
Nylon is a polyamide made from petroleum. Nylon melts
and then burns rapidly if the flame remains on the melted
fiber. If you can keep the flame on the
melting nylon, it smells like burning plastic.
Polyester is a polymer produced from coal, air, water, and petroleum products.
Polyester melts and burns at the same time, the melting, burning ash can bond
quickly to any surface it drips on including skin. The smoke from polyester
is black with a sweetish smell. The
extinguished ash is hard.
Rayon is a regenerated cellulose fiber which is almost pure cellulose.
Rayon burns rapidly and leaves only a slight ash.
The burning smell is close to burning leaves.
Blends consist of two or more fibers and, ideally, are supposed to take on the
characteristics of each fiber in the blend. The burning test
can be used but the fabric content
will be an assumption.
Several chemicals usually found in the home can help further identify fabrics. As in the burn test, caution should be used. Reactions between some of the fibers and household chemicals are rapid and could cause damage to surrounding surfaces.
Acetate is dissolved by acetone, an ingredient in nail polish remover and Super Glue. Caution should be used when wearing acetate or an acetate blend fabric and using any acetone containing product.
Fiber-Etch, a liquid used in embroidery or cutwork embroidery, dissolves any plant fiber including cotton, linen, and rayon. Since this product removes plant fibers, it is also useful to determine fabric content. With blends of plant fiber fabrics, the blended fibers will remain. For example, a cotton/polyester fabric will, when this product is applied to a small area, remove the cotton fiber and leave the polyester fiber.
turns to powder
|flame will self extinguish
if flame source is removed
|SILK||burns slowly||burning hair
turns to powder
|burns more easily than wool
but will self extinguish is flame
|COTTON||yellow to orange color
|grayish, fluffy||slow burning ember|
|LINEN||yellow to orange color
|similar to cotton||takes longer to ignite than cotton but otherwise very similar|
|RAYON||fast orange flame||burning paper
|almost no ash||ember will continue to glow after flame source removed|
|POLYESTER||orange flame, sputtery||sweet or fruity smell||hard shiny black bead||black smoke|
|ACETATE||burns and melts,sizzly||acidic or vinegary||hard black bead||will continue to burn after flame source removed|
|NYLON||burns slowly and melts, bluse base and orange tip, no smoke||burning celery||hard grayish or brownish bead||self extinguish if flame source removed|
|ACRYLIC||burns and melts, white-orange tip, no smoke||acrid||black hard crust||will continue to burn after flame source removed|
Fiber Burn Chart
I know this isn’t the normal Fashion History segment, but it’s a helpful technique for the most part plus it’s fun to experiment with burn testing, fiber Etching, and dying using tomato soup or anything really. BE SAFE & Have fun!
Haute couture (French for “high sewing” or “high dressmaking”) refers to the creation
of exclusive custom-fitted clothing. Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer,
and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric and sewn with extreme attention
to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable seamstresses, often using
time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Couture is a common abbreviation
of haute couture and refers to the same thing in spirit.
It originally referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth’s
work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century. In modern
France, haute couture is a “protected name” that can be used
only by firms that meet certain well-defined standards. However,
the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted
clothing, whether it is produced in Paris or in other fashion capitals such as
Milan, London, New York and Tokyo.
In France, the term haute couture is protected by law and is defined by
the Chambre de commerce et d’industrie de Paris based in Paris, France.
Their rules state that only “those companies mentioned on the list drawn up each year
by a commission domiciled at the Ministry for Industry are entitled to avail themselves”
of the label haute couture. The criteria for haute couture were established in 1945 and
updated in 1992. To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term
haute couture in its advertising and any other way, members of the
Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules:
- Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings.
- Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time.
- Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five runs/exits with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.
However, the term haute couture may have been misused by
ready-to-wear brands since the late 1980s, so that its true meaning
may have become blurred with that of prêt-à-porter (the French term for
ready-to-wear fashion) in the public perception. Every haute couture house also
markets prêt-à-porter collections, which typically deliver a higher return on investment
than their custom clothing . Falling revenues have forced a few couture
houses to abandon their less profitable couture division and concentrate
solely on the less prestigious prêt-à-porter. These houses, such as
Italian designer Roberto Capucci, all of whom have their
workshops in Italy, are no longer
considered haute couture.
Many top designer fashion houses, such as Chanel, use the word for
some of their special collections. These collections are often not for sale or they
are very difficult to purchase. Sometimes, “haute couture” is inappropriately used to
label non-dressmaking activities, such as fine art, music and more.
French leadership in European fashion may date from the
18th century, when the art, architecture, music, and fashions
of the French court at Versailles were imitated across Europe. Visitors
to Paris brought back clothing that was then copied by local dressmakers.
Stylish women also ordered fashion dolls dressed in the latest Parisian fashion
to serve as models. As railroads and steamships made European travel easier,
it was increasingly common for wealthy women to travel to Paris to shop for clothing
and accessories. French fitters and dressmakers were commonly thought to be the best
in Europe, and real Parisian garments were considered better than local imitations.
The couturier Charles Frederick Worth (October 13, 1826–March 10, 1895),
is widely considered the father of haute couture as it is known today. Although
born in Bourne, Lincolnshire, England, Worth made his mark in the French
fashion industry. Revolutionizing how dressmaking had been previously perceived,
Worth made it so the dressmaker became the artist of garnishment: a fashion designer.
While he created one-of-a-kind designs to please some of his titled or wealthy customers,
he is best known for preparing a portfolio of designs that were shown on live models at the
House of Worth. Clients selected one model, specified colors and fabrics, and had a
duplicate garment tailor-made in Worth’s workshop. Worth combined individual
tailoring with a standardization more characteristic of the ready-to-wear clothing industry,
which was also developing during this period.
Following in Worth’s footsteps were Callot Soeurs, Patou,
Poiret, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin, Chanel, Mainbocher, Schiaparelli,
Balenciaga, and Dior. Some of these fashion houses still exist today, under
the leadership of modern designers.
In the 1960s a group of young designers who had trained under
men like Dior and Balenciaga left these established couture houses and opened their
own establishments. The most successful of these young designers were Yves Saint Laurent,
Pierre Cardin, André Courrèges, and Emanuel Ungaro. Japanese native and Paris-based
Hanae Mori was also successful in establishing her own line.
Lacroix is one of the fashion houses to have been started in
the late 20th century. Other new houses have included Jean-Paul Gaultier
and Thierry Mugler. Due to the high expenses of producing haute couture
collections, Lacroix and Mugler have since ceased
their haute couture activities.
For all these fashion houses, custom clothing is no longer the main source of
income, often costing much more than it earns through direct sales; it only adds the a
ura of fashion to their ventures in ready-to-wear clothing and related luxury products
such as shoes and perfumes, and licensing ventures that earn greater
returns for the company. Excessive commercialization and profit-making can be
damaging, however. Cardin, for example, licensed with abandon in the 1980s and his name
lost most of its fashionable cachet when anyone could buy Cardin luggage at a discount store.
It is their ready-to-wear collections that are available to a wider audience, adding a
splash of glamour and the feel of haute
couture to more wardrobes.
The 1960s also featured a revolt against established fashion
standards by mods, rockers, and hippies, as well as an increasing
internationalization of the fashion scene. Jet travel had spawned a jet set
that partied—and shopped—just as happily in New York as in Paris. Rich women
no longer felt that a Paris dress was necessarily better than one sewn elsewhere.
While Paris is still pre-eminent in the fashion world, it is no
longer the sole arbiter of fashion.
“It’s always the badly dressed people who are the most interesting.”~Jean Paul Gaultier
“Women usually love what they buy, yet hate two-thirds of what is in their closets.”~Mignon McLaughlin
This was supposed to be yesterday’s post sorry, I was busy sewing new stuff!
Shoulder Pads In Time
Shoulder pads are a type of fabric-covered padding used in men’s and women’s clothing to give the wearer the illusion of having broader and less sloping shoulders. In men’s styles, shoulder pads are often used in suits, jackets and overcoats, usually sewn at the top of the shoulder and fastened between the lining and the outer fabric layer. In women’s clothing, their inclusion depends on the fashions of the day. Their use is particularly associated with clothing of the early 1940s and the 1980s. Although from a non-fashion point of view they are generally for people with narrow or sloping shoulders, there are also quite a few cases in which shoulder pads will be necessary for a suit or blazer in order to compensate for certain fabrics’ natural properties, most notably suede blazers, due to the weight of the material.
Shoulder pads originally became popular for women in the 1930s when
fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli included them in her designs of 1931, and the following
year Joan Crawford wore them in the film “Letty Lynton”. In the beginning, they were shaped
as a semicircle or small triangle, and were stuffed with wool, cotton or sawdust. They were
positioned at the top of the sleeve, to extend the shoulder line. A good example of this
is their use in “leg o’ mutton” sleeves, or the smaller puffed sleeves which were revived at
this time, and based on styles from the 1890s.
After World War II began in 1939, women’s fashions became increasingly militarised.
Jackets and coats in particular were influenced by masculine styles and shoulder pads became bulkier and were
positioned at the top of the shoulder to create a solid look. Dresses too were made with shoulder pads;
soon the style was universal, found in all garments excepting lingerie but tapering off later in the
decade after the war was over and women yearned for a softer, more feminine look.
During the late 1940s to about 1951, some dresses featured a soft, smaller shoulder pad with
so little padding as to be barely noticeable. Its function seems to have been to slightly shape the shoulder line.
During the 1950s and 1960s small padded shoulder pads appeared only
in women’s jackets and coats—not in dresses, knitwear or blouses as
they had previously during the heyday of the early 1940s.
Shoulder pads made their next appearance in women’s clothing in the early 1970s,
through the influence of British fashion designer Barbara Hulanicki and her label Biba.
Biba produced designs influenced by the styles of the 1930s and 1940s, and so a soft version
of the shoulder pad was revived. Ossie Clark was another London designer using shoulder
pads at the time. These styles did not, however, reach mainstream acceptance, and
so the popularity was relatively short lived.
During the early 1980s there was a resurgence of interest in the ladies’ evening wear styles of the
early 1940s: peplums, batwing sleeves and other design elements of the times were re-interpreted for a new market.
The shoulder pad helped define the silhouette and was reintroduced in cut foam versions, especially
in well-cut suits reminiscent of the WWII era. Before too long, these masculinized shapes were adopted by women
seeking success in the corporate world and became an icon of women’s attempts to smash the
glass ceiling, a mission that was added by their notable appearance in the TV series Dynasty.
As the decade wore on, shoulder pads became the defining fashion statement of the era, known
as power dressing and bestowing the perception of status and position onto those who wore them. They became
both larger and more ubiquitous—every garment from the brassiere upwards would come with its own
set of shoulder pads. To prevent excessive shoulder padding, velcro was sewn onto the pads so that
the wearer could choose how many sets to wear. By the end of the era, some shoulder pads
were the size of dinner plates. It was inevitable that as the cycle of fashion
turned, they would lose favour in the early 1990s.
The shoulder pad fashion carried over from the late 1980s with some popularity in the
early 1990s, but tastes were changing. Some designers continued to produce ranges featuring
shoulder pads into the mid-1990s, as shoulder pads were prominent in women’s formal
suits, and matching top-bottom attire, highly exampled in The Nanny. but the marketplace had
spoken—the styles now looked out of date and were shunned by the young and fashion-conscious.
Appearances were reduced to smaller, subtler versions augmenting the
shoulder lines of jackets and coats.
In the late 2000s, a resurgence of shoulder pads appeared on many runways, fashion
designer collections and became mainstream among many people who were interested in
fashion. By the 2009-2010 seasons shoulder pads had made there way in
the mainstream market again. In 2010 many retailers
like Wal-Mart had shoulder pads on at
least half of all womens tops