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L’Histoire de Mode~Vogue Magazine

 

 

Vogue

Vogue was founded as a weekly publication by

Arthur Baldwin Turnure in 1892. When he died in 1909,

Condé Nast picked it up and slowly began growing the publication.

The first change Nast made was that Vogue appeared every two

weeks instead of weekly. Nast also went overseas in the early 1910s.

He first went to Britain, and started a Vogue there, and it went well.

Then he went to Spain, however that was a failure. Lastly, Nast took

Vogue to France, and that was a huge success. The magazine’s

number of publications and profit increased dramatically

under Nast. The magazine’s number of subscriptions

surged during the Depression, and again during World War II.

In the 1960s, with Diana Vreeland as editor-in-chief and personality,

the magazine began to appeal to the youth of the sexual

revolution by focusing more on contemporary fashion

and editorial features openly discussing sexuality.

Vogue also continued making household names out

of models, a practice that continued with Suzy Parker,

Twiggy, Jean Shrimpton, Lauren Hutton, Veruschka,

Marisa Berenson, Penelope Tree, and others.

In 1973, Vogue became a monthly publication. Under editor-in-chief

Grace Mirabella, the magazine underwent extensive editorial and

stylistic changes to respond to changes in the lifestyles of its target audience.

The current editor-in-chief of American Vogue is Anna Wintour, noted for her

trademark bob and her practice of wearing sunglasses indoors. Since taking over in 1988,

Wintour has worked to protect the magazine’s high status and reputation

among fashion publications. In order to do so, she has made the magazine focus on

new and more accessible ideas of “fashion” for a wider audience. This allowed

Wintour to keep a high circulation while discovering new trends that a broader audience

could conceivably afford. For example, the inaugural cover of the magazine

under Wintour’s editorship featured a three-quarter-length photograph of Israeli super

model Michaela Bercu wearing a bejeweled Christian Lacroix jacket and a pair

of jeans, departing from her predecessors’ tendency to portray a woman’s face alone,

which, according to the Times’, gave “greater importance to both her clothing and her body.

This image also promoted a new form of chic by combining jeans with haute couture.

Wintour’s debut cover brokered a class-mass rapprochement that informs modern

fashion to this day.

“Wintour’s Vogue also welcomes new and young talent.

Wintour’s presence at fashion shows is often taken by fashion

insiders as an indicator of the designer’s profile within the industry.

In 2003, she joined the Council of Fashion Designers of America in

creating a fund that provides money and guidance to at least two

emerging designers each year. This has built loyalty among the emerging

new star designers, and helped preserve the magazine’s dominant

position of influence through what Time called her own “considerable

influence over American fashion. Runway shows don’t start until she

arrives. Designers succeed because she anoints them.

Trends are created or crippled on her command.”

The contrast of Wintour’s vision with

that of her predecessor has been noted as

striking by observers, both critics and defenders.

Amanda Fortini, fashion and style contributor to Slate

argues that her policy has been beneficial for Vogue:

[W]hen Wintour was appointed head of Vogue, Grace Mirabella
had been editor in chief for 17 years, and the magazine had grown
complacent, coasting along in what one journalist derisively called
“its beige years.” Beige was the color Mirabella had used to paint
over the red walls in Diana Vreeland’s office, and the metaphor
was apt: The magazine had become boring. Among Condé Nast
executives, there was worry that the grand dame of fashion
publications was losing ground to upstart Elle, which in just
three years had reached a paid circulation of 851,000 to
Vogue ‘s stagnant 1.2 million. And so Condé Nast publisher
Si Newhouse brought in the 38-year-old Wintour—who,
through editor in chief positions at British Vogue
and House & Garden, had become known not only
for her cutting-edge visual sense but also for her
ability to radically revamp a magazine—
to shake things up.

Vogue was described by book critic Caroline Weber in The New York Times in December 2006 as “the world’s most

influential fashion magazine”: Vogue is most famous as a presenter of images of high fashion and high society, but it

also publishes writings on art, culture, politics, and ideas. It has also helped to enshrine the fashion model as celebrity.

Vogue is widely published; today, it is published in 18 countries and one region.

  • Australia
  • Brazil
  • China
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • India
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Latin America/Mexico
  • Portugal
  • Russia
  • Spain
  • Taiwan
  • Turkey
  • United Kingdom
  • United States

 

 

As Wintour came to personify the magazine’s image, she and Vogue

drew critics. Wintour’s one-time assistant at the magazine, Lauren Weisberger,

wrote a roman à clef entitled The Devil Wears Prada. Published in 2003,

the novel became a bestseller and was adapted as a highly successful,

Academy Award-nominated film in 2006. The central character resembled

Weisberger, and her boss was a powerful editor-in-chief of a fictionalized

version of Vogue. The novel portrays a magazine ruled by “the Antichrist

and her coterie of fashionistas, who exist on cigarettes, Diet Dr. Pepper,

and mixed green salads”, according to a review in the New York Times.

The editor is described by Weisberger as being “an empty, shallow,

bitter woman who has tons and tons of gorgeous clothes and not much else”.

The success of both the novel and the film brought new attention

from a wide global audience to the power and glamour of the

magazine, and the industry it continues to lead.

In 2007, Vogue drew criticism from the anti-smoking group,

“Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids”, for carrying tobacco advertisements

in the magazine. The group claims that volunteers sent the magazine

more than 8,000 protest e-mails or faxes regarding the ads.

The group also claimed that in response, they received

scribbled notes faxed back on letters that had been

addressed to editor Anna Wintour stating,

“Will you stop? You’re killing trees!”

A spokesperson for Condé Nast released an

official statement saying that, “‘Vogue’

does carry tobacco advertising.

Beyond that we have no

further comment.”

In April 2008, the American Vogue had a cover shot by the famed
photographer Annie Leibovitz, featuring the supermodel Gisele Bündchen
and the basketball superstar LeBron James. This was the third time that Vogue
featured a male on the cover of the American issue (the other two men were the
actors George Clooney and Richard Gere), and the first in which the man was black.
Some observers criticized the cover as a prejudicial depiction of James because his
pose with Bundchen was reminiscent of a poster for the film King Kong. Further criticism arose
when the website Watching the Watchers analyzed the photo alongside the World
War I recruitment poster titled Destroy This Mad Brute.
In 2005, Condé Nast launched Men’s Vogue and
announced plans for an American version of Vogue Living
launching in late fall of 2006 (there is currently an edition in Australia).
Men’s Vogue ceased publication as an independent publication in October 2008
and is now a twice-yearly extract in the main edition. Condé Nast Publications
also publishes Teen Vogue, a version of the magazine for teen girls,
the Seventeen demographic, in the United States. South Korea and Australia
has a Vogue Girl magazine (currently suspended from further publication), in
addition to Vogue Living and Vogue Entertaining + Travel.

Vogue Hommes International is an international men’s fashion

magazine based in Paris, France, and L’uomo Vogue is the Italian

men’s version. Other Italian versions of Vogue include Vogue Casa

and Bambini Vogue.

Until 1961, Vogue was also the publisher of Vogue Patterns, a home sewing

pattern company. It was sold to Butterick Publishing which also licensed the

Vogue name. In 2007 an Arabic edition of Vogue was rejected by Condé Nast International.

October 2007 saw the launch of Vogue India. Vogue Turkey was launched in March 2010.

Vogue has also created a global initiative, “Fashion’s Night Out” in order to help

boost the economy by bringing together fashionistas to support the cause of full price retails.

Cities across the globe participate to put on fabulous in

store events and promotions.

In 2009, the feature-length documentary The September Issue was

released; it was an inside view of the production of the record-breaking

September 2007 issue of U.S. Vogue, directed by R. J. Cutler. The film

was shot over eight months as editor-in-chief Anna Wintour prepared the issue.

It included at times testy exchanges between Wintour and her creative director

Grace Coddington. The issue became the largest ever published; over 5 pounds in

weight and 840 pages in length, a world record for a monthly magazine.

Since 2007, the feminist fashion blog Glossed Over has liveblogged

the September issue of Vogue, commenting on

its content, photos, and ads.

Editors-In-Chief:

The following individuals have served as editor-in-chief of Vogue:

Country Editor-in-Chief Start year End year
United States Josephine Redding 1892 1901
Marie Harrison 1901 1914
Edna Woolman Chase 1914 1951
Jessica Daves 1952 1963
Diana Vreeland 1963 1971
Grace Mirabella 1971 1988
Anna Wintour 1988 present
United Kingdom Elspeth Champcommunal 1916 1922
Dorothy Todd 1923 1926
Alison Settle 1926 1934
Elizabeth Penrose 1934 1940
Audrey Withers 1940 1961
Ailsa Garland 1961 1965
Beatrix Miller 1965 1984
Anna Wintour 1985 1987
Liz Tilberis 1988 1992
Alexandra Shulman 1992 present
France Cosette Vogel 1922 1927
Main Bocher 1927 1929
Michel de Brunhoff 1929 1954
Edmonde Charles-Roux 1954 1966
Francine Crescent 1968 1987
Colombe Pringle 1987 1994
Joan Juliet Buck 1994 2001
Carine Roitfeld 2001 2011
Emmanuelle Alt 2011 Present
Russia Aliona Doletskaya 1998 2010
Victoria Davydova 2010 present

 

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